Table 1– Methods used to estimate the number of tests required for target populations considered
Three target populationsDescriptionReference/First author [Ref.]
All people with TB signs and symptoms
 Shortened title used in figuresTB-SS
 NumberAssume 10 people with TB signs and symptoms per one smear-positive TB case notified in 20112011 Global TB Report [1]
 Conventional practice for diagnosisTwo smears and one radiograph for those smear-negative (S-X)WHO guidelines [22]
 Additional tests for South Africa, Russia, Estonia and KazakhstanOne culture test (S-X-C)
 Xpert MTB/RIFOne test per personXpert MTB/RIF rapid implementation guidance [21]
  DST (and culture) follow-on test when using Xpert MTB/RIF (confirmatory test)One culture test followed by one DST for two firstline drugs (rifampicin and isoniazid; solid or liquid) per patient with rifampicin- resistant result with Xpert MTB/RIFXpert MTB/RIF rapid implementation guidance [21]
 Proportion of Xpert tested patients with rifampicin-resistant positive resultProportion of rifampicin resistance (where data are available); and estimated proportion of new TB cases that have MDR-TB (if data on rifampicin resistance are not available)Zignol [23] and 2011 Global TB Report [1]
HIV-positive individuals (or HIV unknown in high HIV settings) with TB signs and symptoms
 Shortened title used in figuresTB-SS, HIV positive
 NumberProportion of tested TB patients HIV positive multiplied by all people with TB signs and symptoms2011 Global TB Report [1]
 Conventional practice for diagnosisTwo smears, one radiograph and one culture (S-X-C)WHO guidelines for TB/HIV [4]
 Xpert MTB/RIFOne test per suspectXpert MTB/RIF rapid implementation guidance [21]
 DST (and culture) follow-on test when using Xpert MTB/RIF (confirmatory test)One culture test followed by one DST for two firstline drugs (rifampicin and isoniazid; solid or liquid) per patient with rifampicin-resistant result with Xpert MTB/RIFXpert MTB/RIF rapid implementation guidance [21]
 Proportion of Xpert tested patients with rifampicin-resistant positive resultProportion of rifampicin resistance (where data are available); and estimated proportion of new TB cases that have MDR-TB (if data on rifampicin resistance are not available)Zignol [23] and 2011 Global TB Report [1]
Individuals at risk of having MDR-TB, diagnosed with TB or with TB signs and symptoms
 Shortened title used in figuresMDR-TB, high-risk
 Number20% of all new TB cases + 100% TB retreatment cases2011 Global TB Report [1]
 Conventional practice for diagnosisOne culture test + one DST for two drugs (rifampicin and isoniazid; solid or liquid media)WHO guidelines for MDR-TB [12]
 Xpert MTB/RIFOne test per personXpert MTB/RIF rapid implementation guidance [21]
 DST (and culture) follow-on test when using Xpert MTB/RIF (confirmatory test)One culture test followed by one DST for two firstline drugs (rifampicin and isoniazid; solid or liquid) per patient with rifampicin-resistant result with Xpert MTB/RIFXpert MTB/RIF rapid implementation guidance [21]
 Proportion of Xpert tested patients with rifampicin resistance resultProportion of rifampicin resistance (where data are available); and estimated proportion of new TB cases that have MDR-TB (if data on rifampicin resistance are not available)Zignol [23] and 2011 Global TB Report [1]
  • TB: tuberculosis; S: smear microscopy; X: radiograph; C: culture; DST: drug susceptibility testing; MDR-TB: multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.