Table 1– Details of the 17 cases of children with culture-confirmed multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) notified between 2006–2010
Age years, Sex, EthnicityCountry of birthHIV StatusContacta) TST# b) IGRA c) prior TB treatmentCXRa) Signs and symptoms b) site of diseasea) Smear b) culture+Resistance profilea) Treatment delay b) MDR regimen c) duration of MDR treatmentOutcome at 24 months post treatment start: a) clinical b) radiological
12, F, Black AfricanSomaliaNegativeNot knowna) Positive
b) 1st negative, 2nd positive
c) No
Abnormala) Cough, fever, weight loss, night sweats, lethargy, lymphadenopathy
b) Pulmonary, extra pulmonary
a) Negative (x3 gastric washings)
b) Positive (FNA of lymph node)
R, Ha) 9 weeks
b) Z, E, Mfx, Pto, Amk
c) Not known but Amk 4 weeks
a) No symptoms and signs
b) Not known
13.5, F, IndianIndiaNegativeNot knowna) Positive
b) Positive
c) No
Abnormala) Cough, fever, chest pain,
b) Pulmonary
a) Positive
b) Positive
R, Ha) 3 days
b) Mfx, Amk, H, Z, E, Pto. H stopped after 9 days
c) Not known
a) No symptoms and signs
b) Normal CXR 1 year into treatment
10.2, M, IndianUKNegativeNot knowna) Positive
b) Positive
c) Yes
Abnormala) Cough, fever, weight loss, night sweats, lethargy
b) Pulmonary
a) Positive
b) Positive
R, H, E, S, Eto, Mfx, Ofx, Ptoa) 8 months
b) Amk Pto, Mfx, Cs. PAS
c) Not known
a) Not known
b) Not known
14.8, F, CongoleseNot knownNegativeClose social§a) Not known
b) Not known
c) No
Abnormala) Cough, fever, weight loss, night sweats, lethargy, lymphadenopathy
b) Pulmonary
a) Positive
b) Positive
R, H, Etoa) 2 months
b) Mfx, Amk, E, Z, PAS
c) Minimum of 1 year
a) Not known
b) Not known
10.6, F, Black AfricanCote D'IvoirePositiveNot knowna) Negative
b) Indeterminate
c) No
Abnormala) Cough, fever, weight loss, night sweats, lethargy, lymphadenopathy
b) Pulmonary, meningitis
a) Positive (bronchoalveolar lavage, lymph node, spleen)
b) Positive
R, H, Eto, S, Ptoa) 6 weeks,
b) Mfx, Clr, E, Z, PAS
c) 2 years
a) Residual haemiplegia
b) Hydrocephalus stable not shunted but died of acute hydrocephalus 10 months after stopping TB treatment (2 years 10 months after commencing treatment)
9, F, SomalianSomaliaNot knownNot knowna) Positive
b) Not known
c) No
Normala) Fever and lymphadenopathy
b) Extra pulmonary
a) Negative
b) Positive (FNA of lymph node)
R, Ha) 6 weeks
b) S, Pto, Cip, E
c) Not known
a) No symptoms and signs
b) Normal CXR.
15, F, PakistaniUKNot knownNot knowna) Not known
b) Not known
c) No
Not knowna) Not known
b) Pulmonary
a) Negative
b) Positive
R, H, E, Etoa) Not known
b) Mfx, Clr, Z, S then Z, Cs, Cm. Cip
c) Not known
a) Not known
b) Not known
13, F, OtherAfghanistanNot knownNot knowna) Positive
b) Positive
c) Yes
Abnormala) Cough, haemoptysis
b) Pulmonary
a) Positive
b) Positive
R, H, E, Eto, Sa)1 month
b) Amk,Clr, Mfx. Pto, PAS started, 4 months into treatment
c) Not known
a) Had intermittent cough symptoms but repeat cultures negative
b) Residual bronchiectasis on CXR
15, F, PakistaniUKNot knownNot knowna) Not known
b) Not known
c) No
Not knowna) Not known
b) Pulmonary
a) Positive
b) Positive
R, H, E, Sa) Not known
b) Not Known
c) Not known
a) Not known
b) Not known
8, F, IndianUKNot knownNot knowna) Positive
b) Not done
c) No
Normala) Right sided facial swelling
b) Extrathoracic lymph nodes
a) Not known
b) Positive
R, H, Eto Pto, Sa)Not known
b) Not known
c) Not known
a) No symptoms and signs
b) Not known
13, F, Black AfricanNetherlandsNot knownNot knowna) Not known
b) Not known
c) Yes
Not knowna) Not known
b) Pulmonary and intrathoracic lymph node
a)Positive
b) Positive
R, H, Eto, Pto, Sa) Not known
b) E, Amk, Cs, Mfx, Z. Amk stopped after 6 months.
c) Treatment only for 1 year.
a) Not known
b) Not known
2, M, Black AfricanUKNot knownNot knowna) Not known
b) Not known
c) No
Not knowna) Not known
b) Intrathoracic lymph nodes
a) Negative
b) Positive
R, H, E, Eto, Amk, Km, Cma) No delay
b) Amk, Cs, Mfx, Pto along with H R E Z. 3/52 later H, E, R and AmK stopped as resistant. S added and then stopped after 1/52
c) 18 months
a) Not known
b) Not known
8, M, Mixed/OtherUKNot knownNot knowna) Not known
b) Not known
c) No
Not knowna) Not known
b) Pulmonary
a) Not known
b) Positive
R, Ha) Not known
b) Not known
c) 22 months
a) Not known
b) Not known
13, F, IndianIndiaNot knownNot knowna) Not known
b) Not known
c) No
Not knowna) Not known
b) Pulmonary
a) Negative
b) Positive
R, H, E, Z, S, Eto, Pto, Mfxa) Not known
b) First line drugs only. No changes recorded.
c) 2.5 years ( total treatment)
a) Not known
b) Not known
15, M, Black AfricanSomaliaNot knownNot Knowna) Not known
b) Not known
c) Not known
Not knowna) Not known
b) Pulmonary
a) Positive
b) Positive
R, H, E, Z, Sa) Not known
b) Not known
c) 14 months
a) Not known
b) Not known
15, F, Black AfricanZambiaNot knownNot knowna) Not known
b) Not known
c) No
Not knowna) Not known
b) Pulmonary
a) Negative
b) Positive
R, Ha) Not known
b) Not known
c) Not known
a) Not known
b) Not known
1, F, Black AfricanUKNegativeFamilya) Not done
b) Positive
c) No
Abnormala) None
b) Pulmonary
a) Not done
b) Positive
R, H, E, Eto, Pto, Sa) No Delay
b) Amk, Cs ,Z, Mfx
c) 18 months but had Amk for 6 weeks only)
a) No symptoms or signs
b) CXR normal
  • TST: tuberculin skin test; IGRA: interferon gamma release assay; CXR: chest radiograph; Not known: data unavailable from contributing centre; FNA: fine needle aspirate; R: Rifampicin; H: Isoniazid; Z: Pyrazinamide; E: Ethambutol; Mfx: Moxifloxacin; Pto: Prothionamide; Amk: Amikacin; S: Streptomycin; Eto: Ethionamide; Ofx: Ofloxacin; Cs: Cycloserine; PAS: Para-aminosalicyclic acid; Clr: Clarithromycin; Cip: Ciprofloxacin; Cm: Capreomycin; Km: Kanamycin. #: a positive TST result is defined as induration ≥15 mm if there was a previous history of BCG vaccination, otherwise ≥6 mm is interpreted as positive [7];: microscopy for acid fast bacilli on sputum samples; +: culture growth of M. tuberculosis from diagnostic samples, including samples not derived from sputum; §: Close social contact defined as non-family member with culture positive MDR-TB with more than 8 h of close contact with case.