Table 1– Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 98 multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) cases enrolled in two specialised clinical centres in Italy and the Netherlands
VariablesTotal subjectsItalian cohort: cases#Dutch cohort: controlsp-value
Males58/98 (59.2)25/37 (67.6)33/61 (54.1)0.19
Age at admission years30 (24–38)32 (26–41)29 (24–35)0.21
Country of birth
 Europe48/98 (49)29/37 (78.4)21/61 (34.4)<0.0001
 Asia19/98 (19.4)2/37 (5.4)15/61 (24.6)0.02
 Africa26/98 (26.5)5/37 (13.5)21/61 (34.4)0.02
 Other geographical areas5/98 (5.1)1/37 (2.7)4/61 (6.6)0.40
Migrant96/98 (98.0)36/37 (97.3)60/61 (98.4)0.72
HIV-positive8/88 (9.1)4/37 (10.8)4/51 (7.8)0.63
Exposure to ART6/8 (75)3/4 (75)3/4 (75)
Previous exposure to anti-TB therapy >1 month41/97 (42.3)21/36 (58.3)20/61 (32.8)0.01
Treated with anti-TB drugs for >1 month1 (1–2)1 (0–2)1 (1–1)0.99
Sputum-smear positive50/98 (51.0)32/37 (86.5)18/61 (29.5)<0.0001
Pulmonary TB89/98 (90.8)34/37 (91.9)55/61 (90.2)0.77
Extrapulmonary TB12/98 (12.2)5/37 (13.5)7/61 (11.5)0.77
Radiological findings
 Cavitary lesions17/89 (19.1)8/34 (23.5)9/55 (16.4)0.41
 Bilateral pulmonary involvement with cavitary lesions29/89 (32.6)11/34 (32.4)18/55 (32.7)0.98
 Bilateral pulmonary involvement13/89 (14.6)6/34 (17.7)7/55 (12.7)0.52
 Non-cavitary unilateral pulmonary involvement30/89 (33.7)9/34 (26.5)21/55 (38.2)0.26
XDR-TB11/98 (11.2)9/37 (24.3)2/61 (3.3)0.001
Resistance
 Ethambutol66/97 (68.0)29/37 (78.4)37/60 (61.7)0.09
 Pyrazinamide49/90 (54.4)31/36 (86.1)18/54 (33.3)<0.0001
 Fluoroquinolones21/97 (21.7)15/37 (40.5)6/60 (10.0)<0.0001
 Ethionamide33/96 (34.4)24/36 (66.7)9/60 (15.0)<0.0001
 Cycloserine10/73 (13.7)8/34 (23.5)2/39 (5.1)0.02
 Amikacin20/97 (20.6)10/37 (27.0)10/60 (16.7)0.22
 Capreomycin18/61 (29.5)12/37 (32.4)6/24 (25.0)0.53
 Kanamycin23/62 (37.1)16/37 (43.2)7/25 (28.0)0.22
Surgical treatment12/96 (12.5)7/35 (20.0)5/61 (8.2)0.09
Length of hospital stay days89.5 (61–153)81 (60–112)91 (75–197)0.03
Exposure to linezolid days61 (35–117)79.0 (50.5–133.0)59.0 (34.0–93.0)0.08
Exposure to meropenem days67.0 (46.0–85.0)
  • Data are presented as n/N (%) or median (interquartile range), unless otherwise stated. For some entries, the total number of subjects may not be 98 due to missing/unavailable data. ART: anti-retroviral therapy; XDR: extensively drug-resistant. #: meropenem containing anti-TB regimen; : meropenem–clavulanate-sparing anti-TB regimen.