Table 1– General characteristics of the study population
Total CAPNonsevere CAP PSI 1–3Severe CAP PSI 4–5Healthy controls
Subjects n20101010
Age years60.6±1954.5±18.466.6±15.854.8±5.7
Sex
 Male13 (65)6 (60)7 (70)6 (60)
 Female7 (35)4 (40)3 (30)4 (40)
Smoking8 (40)4 (40)4 (40)4 (40)
Comorbidity#N/A
 COPD5 (25)4 (40)1 (10)
 Heart disease6 (30)1 (10)5 (50)
 Neurological disorder4 (20)1 (10)3 (30)
 Chronic renal disease1 (5)1 (10)
 Diabetes mellitus2 (10)1 (10)1 (10)
PSI classN/A
 I3 (15)3 (30)
 II5 (25)5 (50)
 III2 (10)2 (20)
 IV6 (30)6 (60)
 V4 (20)4 (40)
Mechanical ventilation4 (20)4 (40)N/A
Mortality2 (10)2 (20)N/A
Bacteraemia5 (25)1 (10)4 (40)N/A
Prior antibiotic use5 (25)3 (30)2 (20)N/A
ICS5 (25)4 (40)1 (10)N/A
Microbiological species14 (70)7 (70)7 (70)N/A
Streptococcus pneumoniae7 (35)3 (30)4 (40)
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia1 (5)1 (10)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa1 (5)1 (10)
Streptococcus pyogenes1 (5)1 (10)
Staphylococcus aureus1 (5)1 (10)
Haemophilus influenzae1 (5)1 (10)
 H1N11 (5)1 (10)
 Adenovirus1 (5)1 (10)
 Unknown6 (30)3 (30)3 (30)
  • Data are presented as mean±sd or n (%), unless otherwise stated. CAP: community-acquired pneumonia; PSI: pneumonia severity index; COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; ICS: inhaled corticosteroids; N/A: not applicable. #: Some patients had more than one comorbidity.