Table 2– Prospective studies linking rhinovirus (RV) infections during infancy to the development of subsequent wheezing and asthma
First author [ref.]CountryStudy typeStudy populationStudy enrolment ageAssessment of RV infectionsAge at assessment of wheeze/asthma yrsType of assessment of wheeze/asthmaAtopic subjects among asthmaticsAssociation between RV-induced wheeze and subsequent development of wheeze/asthma
Hyvärinen [117]Finland (NA)Prospective trialHospitalised infants#1–23 monthsDuring scheduled visits at 2 weeks and aged 4, 8, and 12 months, regardless of symptoms11Questionnaire, exercise challenge test, skin prick-tests901.4 (0.4–4.9), references: RV-positive non-asthmatics
Jackson [110]USA (COAST)Birth cohort studyHigh-risk infantsAt birthDuring hospitalisation; additional follow-up at age of 3 yrs6Doctor diagnosed, use of asthma specific medication58Wheeze during first yr: 2.7 (1.4–5.3), wheeze during second yr: 6.5 (3.1–13.7), wheeze during third yr: 31.7 (10.6–94.9), reference: asymptomatic RV infections
Kotaniemi- Syrijänen [118]Finland (NA)Prospective trialHospitalised infants#1–23 monthsDuring hospitalisation6Questionnaire, use of asthma specific medication, asthma-suggestive symptoms, exercise challenge testNA4.1 (1.02–16.7), reference: RV-negative cases
Kusel [119]Australia (NA)Birth cohort studyHigh-risk infantsAt birthFirst yr, during symptoms of respiratory illness5Doctor diagnosed∼602.9 (1.2–7.1), reference: no wheezing
Kusel [120]Australia (NA)Birth cohort studyHigh-risk infantsAt birthFirst yr, during symptoms of respiratory illness10Doctor diagnosed59.9Persistent wheeze 1.9 (1.04–3.8), current asthma 1.6 (0.8–3.5), reference: no wheezing
Lee [104]Canada (CAPP)Intervention studyHigh-risk infantsPrenatallyDuring scheduled visits at 2 weeks and aged 4, 8 and 12 months, regardless of symptoms2Doctor diagnosedNA2.0 (1.03–3.9), reference: RV-negative cases
Lemanske [112]USA (COAST)Birth cohort studyHigh-risk infantsAt birthFirst yr, scheduled visits at aged 2, 4, 6, 9, and 12 months, and during symptoms of acute respiratory illness3QuestionnaireNA10 (4.1–26), reference: asymptomatic RV infections
Valkonen [121]Finland (NA)Prospective trialHospitalised infants#<2 yrsDuring hospitalisation1, 2 and 3 after hospitalisationDoctor diagnosed, use of asthma specific medicationNAWheeze during first yr: 6.6 (2.6–16.5), wheeze during second yr: 2.9 (1.7–5.1), wheeze during third yr 3.4 (2.0–5.7), reference: non-RV-induced wheezing
  • Data are presented as % or odds ratio (95% CI) apart from Kusel [120] where data are presented as risk ratio (95% CI). NA: not available; COAST: Childhood Origins of Asthma; CAPP: Canadian Asthma Primary Prevention; #: infants hospitalised for respiratory tract infection-associated wheezing; : infants at high-risk for atopy, defined as at least one parent with history of doctor-diagnosed asthma, hay fever or eczema.