Table 1– Studies assessing the prevalence of rhinovirus (RV) infection in the first year of life
First author [ref.]Country (cohort)Study typeStudy populationStudy enrolment ageFollow-upAssessment of RV prevalenceRV prevalence
Blomqvist [108]Finland (FinOM)Prospective studyHealthy infants2 monthsSecond yrDuring scheduled visits at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months (regardless of symptoms)29%
Camara [105]Brazil (NA)Case–control studyhospitalised infants# and controls<2 yrsNADuring hospitalisation regardless of symptoms20% wheezing infants, 10% controls
Heymann [106]USA (NA)Case–control studyHospitalised infants# and controls2–36 monthsNADuring hospitalisation regardless of symptoms58% wheezing infants, 26% controls
Jacques [89]France (NA)Prospective studyHospitalised infants#<36 monthsNADuring acute respiratory infection21%
Jartti [67], Jackson [110]USA (COAST)Prospective birth cohort studyHigh-risk infants+At birthFirst yrDuring scheduled visits at 2, 4, 6, 9 and 12 months (regardless of symptoms) and during respiratory illness35–61%
Korppi [87]Finland (NA)Prospective trialHospitalised infants#1–23 monthsNADuring acute respiratory infection52%
Kusel [66]Australia (NA)Prospective birth cohort studyHigh-risk infants+PrenatallyFirst yrDuring symptoms of acute respiratory illness48%
Lee [104]Canada (CAPP)Intervention studyHigh-risk infants+PrenatallyFirst yrDuring scheduled visits at 2 weeks and 4, 8 and 12 months (regardless of symptoms)68%
Midulla [107]ItalyProspective cohort studyHospitalised infants# and controlsAge <1 yrFirst yrDuring hospitalisation regardless of symptoms3% (without recurrent wheezing) 10% (with recurrent wheezing)
Miller [90]USA (NA)Prospective studyHospitalised infants#<5 yrsNADuring acute respiratory infection26%
Nokso-Koivisto [63]Finland (FinOM)Prospective studyHealthy infants2 monthsSecond yrDuring acute URTI72%
Papadopoulos [86]Greece (NA)Prospective studyHospitalised infants#<18 monthsNADuring acute respiratory infection (bronchiolitis)29%
Peltola [92]Finland (NA)Retrospective studyHospitalised infants<1 yrDuring acute respiratory infection26%
Peltola [92], Peltola [47]Finland (NA)Prospective studyHospitalised infants≥1 month3 weeksDuring hospitalisation regardless of symptoms28%
Rakes [62]USA (NA)Cross-sectional case–control studyHospitalised infants# and controls<2 yrsNoneDuring treatment of respiratory symptoms23% wheezing infants, 25% controls
Regamey [91]Switzerland (BILD)Prospective birth cohort studyHealthy infantsPrenatallyFirst yrDuring first LRTI23%
Souza [111]Brazil (NA)Prospective studyHealthy infants2–24 monthsNADuring symptoms of respiratory illness48%
Van Benten [64]Netherlands VIGALLProspective birth cohort studyHigh-risk infants+At birthSecond yrDuring URTI∼40%
Van der Zalm [109]The Netherlands (WHISTLER)Prospective birth cohort studyHealthy infants2–3 weeksFirst yrDuring symptoms of respiratory illness73%
  • FinOM: Finnish Otitis Media; NA: not available: COAST: Childhood Origins of Asthma; CAPP: Canadian Asthma Primary Prevention; URTI: upper respiratory tract infection; BILD: Bern Infant Lung Development; LRTI: lower respiratory tract infection; VIGALL: Dutch abbreviation for virus mediated allergy; WHISTLER: Wheezing Illnesses Study Leidsche Rijn. #: infants hospitalised for respiratory tract infection-associated wheezing; : infants hospitalised for any reason unrelated to the respiratory system; +:infants at high risk for atopy (defined as at least one parent with a history of doctor-diagnosed asthma, hay fever or eczema).