Table 2– Exercise capacity, balance ability, quadriceps strength and physical performance
GroupDifference within group#Difference between groups#
Week 0Week 12
ISWT m349±136402±179388±135386±16939±34-16±3955 (31–80)
ESWT s467±276442±334803±364430±383336±297-12±181348 (186–510)
ESWT dyspnoea at isotime (0–10)5±34±23±24±2-2±2-0.6±2-1 (-3–0.1)
ESWT RPE at isotime (0–10)4±33±22±23±2-2±2-0.3±2-1 (-3– -0.2)
MPPB score2.16±0.42.35±0.52.31±0.52.25±0.50.15±0.1-0.1±0.2-0.25 (-0.3– -0.2)
Side by side stand
 Anterior–posterior sway mm23.2±1221.7±718.4±723.2±8-4.8±71.4±4-6.3 (-10– -2)
 Medial–lateral sway mm30.3±1325.6±1217.6±726.4±12-12.6±110.8±9-13.4 (-20– -7)
Semi-tandem stand
 Anterior–posterior sway mm29.0±1024.6±1321.8±628.7±17-7.2±11-0.2±12-7 (-14–0.4)
 Medial–lateral sway mm38.6±1829.1±1225.8±1032.6±12-12.8±16-0.4±10-12.4 (-21– -3)
Functional reach cm30.1±829.4±834.7±728.7±85±4-0.8±55.4 (3–8)
Right quadriceps strength N119±51143±50136±54136±4717±18-7±1024 (14.5–33.5)
Left quadriceps strength N123±46153±50139±50151±4616±21-2±1417.8 (6–29)
  • Data are presented as mean±sd or mean difference (95% CI). n=19 for all groups. TCG: t’ai chi group; CG: control group; ISWT: incremental shuttle walk test; ESWT: endurance shuttle walk test; RPE: rate of perceived exertion; MPPB: modified physical performance battery test. There was no significant difference between the groups at baseline in all outcome measures. #: week 12 minus week 0.