Table 1– Demographics of the study participants, according to sleep apnoea severity
AHI <5 events·h−1AHI 5–14 events·h−1AHI ≥15 events·h−1p-value
Subjects n13614076
 Age yrs64±767±6*68±8*0.001
 Female %57.454.336.80.012
 BMI kg·m−228.1±4.628.6±4.030.1±5.0*0.011
 Systolic blood pressure mmHg149±20154±21152±180.121
 Diastolic blood pressure mmHg83±1285±1285±110.133
 Cardiac frequency beats·min−171±1271±1269±130.499
 Atrial fibrillation1.
 Coronary artery disease18.412.917.10.432
 Heart failure5.15.711.80.143
 Current smoker10.
 Previous smoker36.030.947.40.155
 Smoking pack-yrs20±1721±2124±250.642
Body plethysmography
 FEV1 % pred92±1793±1892±140.752
 Vital capacity % pred88±1490±1688±140.530
  Residual volume % pred106±33109±30104±270.518
 Total lung capacity % pred93±1495±1392±140.284
 Total airway resistance kPa·L−1·s−10.36±0.190.34±0.140.33±0.150.394
 ACE inhibition41.945.744.70.809
 AT1 antagonist10.311.431.6<0.001
 Calcium channel blockers19.913.632.90.003
  • Data are presented as mean±sd or %, unless otherwise stated. AHI: apnoea/hypopnoea index; BMI: body mass index; FEV1: forced expiratory volume in 1 s; % pred: % predicted; ACE: angiotensin-converting enzyme; AT1: angiotensin receptor 1. *: p<0.05 versus AHI <5 events·h−1.