Table 2– Studies that have examined ototoxicity among patients treated for drug-resistant tuberculosis using unspecified testing and classification methodology
First author [ref.]Year of studyCountryType of testing and classification of hearing lossPatients nOtotoxicity n (%)Age range yrsHIV-infected patients n or n/n (%)
Baghaei [28]2006–2009IranHearing testing by audiometry
Technique and classification not specified
808–14 (10.0–17.5)14–814 (5.0)
Bloss [29]2000–2004LatviaAudiometry carried out monthly on patients determined by clinicians to be at risk of adverse events
Testing technique and classification not specified
1027195 (19.0)13–8332 (3.1)
Burgos [30]1982–2000USAWorld Health Organization definitions of adverse effects used Testing technique not specified482 (4.2)22–7811 (22.9)
Chan [31]1984–1998USANot specified20539 (19.0)2–85NS
Codecasa [32]2001–2003ItalyNot specified381 (2.6)43.6±17.3#2 (5.3)
Dheda [33]2002–2008South AfricaNot specified16110 (6)<16 yrs excluded82/174 (47.1)
Drobac [34]1999–2003PeruAudiometry if on an injectable for >6 months
Audiometry techniques and classification not specified
302 (6.7)2–142/38 (5.3)
Furin [35]1996–1998PeruHearing loss confirmed by physical examination or audiometry
Audiometry techniques or classification not specified
604 (6.7)12–601 (1.7)
Geerligs [36]1985–1998The NetherlandsAdverse effects considered if necessitating a change in medication Hearing testing technique not specified400–6 (0–15)10–820
Goble [37]1973–1983USAHearing loss requiring treatment to be stopped.
Testing modality not specified
17113 (7.6)17–79NS
Isaakidis [38]2007–2011IndiaHearing testing by audiometry
Technique and classification not specified
585 (8.6)11–6158 (100)
Jacob [39]2002–2007BelgiumHearing testing by audiometry.
Technique and classification not specified
2211 (50.0)21–761/21 (4.8)
Joseph [40]2006–2007IndiaNot specified381 (2.6)<18 yrs excluded+
Karagoz [41]1995–2000TurkeyAudiometric tests performed at the beginning of treatment and whenever complaints about hearing were detected11024 (22.0)16–650
Keal [42]2006–2011UKNot specified (abstract only)185 (27.8)10–801 (5.6)
Keshavjee [43]2000–2004RussiaNot specified60878 (12.8)XDR: 33.9±11.1# MDR: 35.9±11.3#5 (0.8)
Kim [44]1996–2005Republic of KoreaHearing testing not specified but toxicity defined as prompting change or cessation of treatment medication2118 (3.8)13–91+
Leimane [45]2000LatviaNot specified20458 (28.4)17–781/197 (0.5)
Malla [46]2005–2006NepalNot specified12512 (9.6)33.6±12.5#NS
Masjedi [47]2002–2006IranNot specifed4320 (46.5)15–830
Nathanson [48]1998–2002Estonia, Latvia, Peru, Philippines, RussiaVariable across the sites but not specified81898 (12.0)NSNS
Palmero [49]1996–1999ArgentinaHearing testing not specified but toxicity defined as requiring definitive discontinuation of offending drug745 (6.8)<16 excluded 36.0±13.0#+
Shin [50]2000–2002RussiaHearing loss confirmed by physical examination or audiometry
Audiometry testing technique and classification not specified
24438 (15.6)17–65NS
Tahaoğlu [51]1992–1999TurkeyNot specified15845 (28.5)15–68+
Telzak [52]1991–1994USANot specified17§1 (5.9)<25 yrs: 2; ≥25 yrs: 23+
Törün [53]1992–2004TurkeyTinnitus, hearing loss confirmed by audiometry or presence of disequilibrium
Audiometry techniques or classification not specified
263110 (41.8)14–68+
Tupasi [54]1999–2002PhilippinesNot specified11722 (18.8)15–24 yrs: 11; ≥25 yrs: 106Unable to test HIV status
Uffredi [55]1998–1999FranceHearing testing not specified but the drug is recorded as having to have been withdrawn452 (4.4)17–779 (20)
Van Deun [56]1997–2007BangladeshNot specified42719 (4.4)<25 yrs: 108; >25 yrs: 319Not tested
Yew [57]1990–1997Hong KongVertigo, tinnitus and impaired hearing grouped together
Testing technique not specified
639 (14.3)12–770
  • XDR: extensively drug-resistant; MDR: multidrug-resistant; NS, not specified. #: mean±sd is presented as the age range was unavailable. : unclear from the article. +: HIV-infected patients excluded from the study. §: of the 25 patients studied only 17 received injectable drugs.