Table 2– Limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ) and detection ranges for volatile organic compounds in exhalation samples and samples from synthetic air from the central gas supply
SubstanceLOD nmol·L−1LOQ nmol·L−1Detection range in exhalation samples nmol·L−1Detection range in samples from synthetic air nmol·L−1
Isoprene0.0240.0981.54–44.150.13–9.40
Acetone0.2660.9852.93–197.860.99–1.71
2-Butanone0.0430.1580.16–14.280.15–1.55
Cyclohexanone0.2141.2521.80–111.98n.d.
Dimethylsulfide0.0750.270d.n.d.
Acetonitrile0.4921.7161.72–3.10n.d.
Ethanol1,3055.0985.34–373.715.10–13.45
Isopropanol0.2050.7172.87–212.691.42–58.80
Acetaldehyde0.3631.2801.29–146.31d.
Propanal0.0940.3410.34–3.200.34–0.60
Butanal0.0420.1610.16–2.070.55–0.97
Pentanal0.1210.4360.44–4.161.00–1.22
Hexanal0.0830.3050.31–17.230.31–0.79
Heptanal0.0290.116n.d.n.d.
Octanal0.0990.365n.d.n.d.
2-Propenal0.1050.3980.40–9.48n.d.
2-Butenal0.2350.872n.d.n.d.
Propane0.0960.3500.36–0.49n.d.
Butane0.0340.1310.13–3.27n.d.
Pentane0.1190.4310.43–2.23n.d.
Hexane0.0290.1140.12–1.140.12–0.16
Heptane0.0350.1290.13–0.420.13–0.40
Butane, 2-methyl-0.0530.191d.n.d.
Propanal, 2-methyl-0.1190.422n.d.n.d.
Butane, 2,2-dimethyl-0.1520.522n.d.n.d.
Butane, 2,3-dimethyl-0.0910.327n.d.n.d.
Pentane, 2-methyl-0.0790.284d.n.d.
Pentane, 3-methyl-0.0470.177n.d.n.d.
Pentane, 2,2-dimethyl-0.0360.134n.d.n.d.
Pentane, 2,4-dimethyl-0.0280.108n.d.n.d.
Pentane, 3,3-dimethyl-0.0860.307n.d.n.d.
Hexane, 2-methyl-0.0030.014n.d.n.d.
Cyclohexane0.1790.6190.62–1.13n.d.
Benzene0.0290.1120.12–0.21n.d.
Toluene0.0550.1990.20–0.75n.d.
Chlorobenzene0.0590.228n.d.n.d.
Benzene, 1,2-dimethyl-0.0820.310n.d.n.d.
Benzene, 1,2-dichloro-0.0930.348n.d.n.d.
  • n.d.: not detected (i.e. value was below LOD); d.: detected (i.e. value was between LOD and LOQ).