Table 3– Normalised volatile organic compound concentrations including comparison between substance exhalation from nondiseased and diseased lungs before and after surgery
SubstancePatients in which substance could be detected nDiseased before surgery (1b)Nondiseased after surgery (2a)Diseased after surgery (2b)p-value#
1a versus 1b1a versus 2a1b versus 2b2a versus 2b
Acetone150.92±0.022.54±0.272.34±0.290.936<0.001<0.0010.389
Cyclohexanone151.12 (0.95–1.50)0.23 (0.17–0.36)0.55 (0.40–0.59)>0.05<0.05<0.05<0.05
Benzene140.97±0.050.79±0.080.75±0.090.7060.0120.0080.606
Butane140.89±0.090.60±0.090.41±0.080.234<0.001<0.0010.05
Pentane61.26±3.670.65±1.210.09±0.07>0.05>0.05>0.050.046
Heptane141.14±0.120.78±0.190.77±0.190.0650.0650.0650.065
Isoprene151.04±0.041.19±0.121.07±0.140.2680.2680.2680.268
2-Butanone111.09 (0.65–1.40)0.78 (0.48–1.75)0.72 (0.47–1.80)0.8960.8960.8960.896
Acetonitrile71.06±0.201.38±0.320.92±0.170.2550.2550.2550.255
Ethanol150.91 (0.76–1.24)0.82 (0.20–1.99)1.12 (0.23–2.03)0.6620.6620.6620.662
Isopropanol151.02 (0.96–1.30)0.84 (0.36–2.10)0.61 (0.34–1.51)0.4040.4040.4040.404
Acetaldehyde71.01 (0.55–1.92)0.41 (0.17–0.71)0.89 (0.43–1.93)0.1560.1560.1560.156
Propanal90.92±0.140.63±0.230.60±0.170.1720.1720.1720.172
Butanal20.91 (0.57–1.24)1.18 (1.10–1.25)1.11 (1.10–1.13)
Pentanal20.76 (0.00–1.51)1.63 (0.76–2.49)0.52 (0.00–1.04)
Hexanal110.91±0.100.83±0.120.97±0.130.5920.5920.5920.592
2-Propenal20.98 (0.89–1.07)0.17 (0.00–0.35)0.25 (0.00–0.50)
Propane21.22 (1.01–1.44)0.67 (0.00–1.34)0.69 (0.00–1.38)
Hexane121.13±0.161.06±0.231.01±0.200.9250.9250.9250.925
Cyclohexane81.08±0.081.00±0.221.11±0.220.9080.9080.9080.908
Toluene151.01±0.040.95±0.090.88±0.080.2700.2700.2700.270
  • Data are presented as mean±sem or median (25th–75th percentile), unless otherwise stated. Results were normalised to values obtained from samples taken from nondiseased lungs before surgery (1a). 1a: nondiseased lungs before surgery; 2a: nondiseased lungs after surgery; 1b: diseased lungs before surgery; 2b: diseased lungs after surgery. #: p-values are not shown when n<6.