Table 2– Biological markers in the vastus lateralis of severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and healthy controls
Control subjectsNonwasted severe COPD patientsMuscle-wasted severe COPD patients
Antioxidants
 Catalase OD a.u.0.148±0.0630.177±0.0320.165±0.018
 GPx-1 OD a.u.0.635±0.3760.741±0.2800.609±0.344
 Prx-II OD a.u.0.304±0.1490.294±0.1180.272±0.063
 Prx-III OD a.u.0.107±0.0390.129±0.0400.117±0.031
 GSH μM17.631±7.28821.090±8.69123.137±11.701
Signalling pathways
 JNK OD a.u.0.110±0.0620.120±0.0700.109±0.054
 ERK-1/2 OD a.u.0.508±0.2400.483±0.1260.473±0.187
 p38 OD a.u.0.228±0.1030.189±0.0920.219±0.119
 Myostatin OD a.u.0.330±0.0630.327±0.0640.326±0.064
Inflammation
 IFN-γ pg·mL−150.190±15.14040.480±22.63055.850±25.004
 TNF-α pg·mL−128.25±4.83026.990±5.60026.320±6.550
 VEGF pg·mL−110.660±4.7408.280±3.5808.820±5.062
  • Data are presented as mean±sd. OD: optical density; a.u.: arbritrary units; GPx: glutathione peroxidase; Prx: peroxiredoxin; GSH: reduced glutathione; JNK: c-Jun N-terminal kinase; ERK: extracellular-signal-regulated kinase; p38: p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase; IFN: interferon; TNF: tumour necrosis factor; VEGF: vascular endothelial growth factor.