Table 3– Crude and adjusted association between high cured meat intake and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) hospital readmission in 274 COPD patients with a median follow-up of 2.6 yrs
Crude HR# (95% CI)p-valueAdjusted HR (95% CI)p-value
High cured meat intake >22.68 g·day−11.59 (1.06–2.38)0.0242.02 (1.31–3.12)0.001
Age per 5 yrs1.09 (0.97–1.23)0.1541.13 (1.00–1.28)0.052
Total caloric intake per 100 kcal·day−11.00 (0.96–1.03)0.8920.98 (0.95–1.01)0.244
FEV1 % pred0.97 (0.96–0.99)<0.0010.97 (0.96–0.98)<0.001
  • FEV1: forced expiratory volume in 1 s; % pred: % predicted. Sex, body mass index, fat free mass index, carbon dioxide tension, oxygen tension, smoking status, physical activity, inhaled corticosteroid treatment, statin treatment, the Charlson index of comorbidity, and intakes of fruit, vegetables and fish were tested as potential confounders and finally not included because they were not independently related to both the exposure and the outcome, or if they modified (>10% change in HR) the estimates for the remaining variables. #: each line is a single model; : the entire column is a single model.