Table 1– Main sociodemographic and clinical characteristics and cured meat intake in 274 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients according to cured meat intake level
All subjectsLow cured meat intake ≤22.68 g·day−1High cured meat intake >22.68 g·day−1p-value#
Subjects n274138136
Male255 (93)133 (96)122 (90)0.030
Age yrs68±869±767±100.012
Primary or higher education163 (59)77 (56)86 (63)0.210
Active worker46 (17)15 (11)31 (23)0.008
Low socioeconomic status208 (82)105 (82)103 (82)0.953
BMI kg·m−20.055
 <206 (2)2 (1)4 (3)
 ≥20 and <2553 (19)21 (15)32 (24)
 ≥25 and <30114 (42)54 (39)60 (44)
 ≥30101 (37)61 (44)40 (29)
FFMI kg·m−219.8±3.120.2±3.119.4±3.10.025
≥2 comorbidities+152 (55)75 (54)77 (57)0.705
Dyspnoea score§2 (2–3)2 (2–3)2 (2–3)0.402
Post-bronchodilator FEV1 % pred53±1652±1554±160.430
Pa,O2 mmHg75±1175±1175±110.998
DL,CO % pred66±2168±2064±210.110
Current smokers114 (42)48 (35)66 (49)0.021
Regular physical activity kcal·week−16709±51606328±45817094±56780.220
Daily energy intake kcal·day−12026±6111819±5352237±612<0.001
Total cured meat intake g·day−123 (11–34)11 (5–17)34 (27–44)<0.001
 Ham8.6 (0–8.6)0 (0–8.6)8.6 (8.6–20)<0.001
 Spanish cured ham8.6 (2.7–8.6)2.7 (0–8.6)8.6 (8.6–8.6)<0.001
 Cured sausages2.4 (0–7.8)0 (0–2.4)7.8 (2.4–7.8)<0.001
 Other sausages0 (0–3.2)0 (0–0)3.2 (0–10)<0.001
 Hot dogs0 (0–0)0 (0–0)0 (0–0)<0.001
Fruit intake g·day−1242 (159–355)221 (148–363)261 (185–355)0.142
Vegetable intake g·day−1282 (208–372)251 (176–355)312 (236–388)0.001
Fish intake g·day−155 (36–91)55 (36–91)55 (36–91)0.724
  • Data are presented as n (%), mean±sdor median (interquartile range), unless otherwise stated. BMI: body mass index; FFMI: fat-free mass index; FEV1: forced expiratory volume in 1 s; % pred: % predicted; Pa,O2: arterial oxygen tension; DL,CO: diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide. #: Chi-squared test, t-test or Mann–Whitney U-test as appropriate; : skilled or unskilled manual workers classified as low socioeconomic status; +: Charlson index; §: Modified Medical Research Council score 0–5.