Table 4– Predictors of techniques used for diagnosing primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) in European children
Nasal nitric oxideSaccharine/variant of saccharineBronchial biopsyNasal brush/biopsyElectron microscopyAny ciliary function (native)#
OR95% CIp-valueOR95% CIp-valueOR95% CIp-valueOR95% CIp-valueOR95% CIp-valueOR95% CIp-value
PCD patients cared for n
European region
 British Isles0.50.2––––––4.9
  • Results are adjusted for size of centre (number of PCD children) and region. European regions are defined as follows. Western Europe: Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands and Switzerland (n=61); British Isles: Ireland and UK (n=33); southern Europe: Cyprus, Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain (n=47); northern Europe: Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden (n=22); eastern Europe: Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Israel, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia and Turkey (n=31) (total n=194). Tests available to a centre were either carried out in-house or by referral of the patient or specimen to another hospital. OR: odds ratio; CI: confidence interval. #: ciliary visualisation, ciliary beat frequency or ciliary beat frequency and pattern.