Table 4– Changes in amino acid concentration in Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stage IV patients versus control subjects, measured by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry
Control subjectsGOLD IV patients
Decreasing amino acid in concentration nM
Increasing amino acid concentrations nM
  • Data are presented as mean±sd. ABA: α-aminobutyrate; 4-HYP: 4-hydroxyproline; AAA: aminoadipate; Pro: proline; Ile: isoleucine, Leu: leucine; Val: valine, AIB: aminoisobutyrate; 1-MH: 1-methyhistidine; 3-MH: 3-methylhistidine; Asp: aspartate; Glu: glutamine; GABA: γ-aminobutyrate. Principal component (PC)1 and PC2 R2=37.5% and Q2=26.2%; PC3–PC5 R2=63.9%, Q2=36.3. #: amino acids with p-values <0.1 (adjusted for using Benjamini–Hochberg test, false discovery rate α=0.1).