Table 2– Characteristics of the included studies and prevalence of inappropriate regimens
First author [ref.]CountryStudy settingPeriod of data collectionType of HCWSample size n
South Asia
 Agarwal [23]IndiaConference2006National and international orthopaedic faculty and infectious disease experts52
 Roy [24]IndiaMunicipal areaNRQualified private medical practitioners55
 Udwadia [25]IndiaSlumNRPrivate medical practitioners106
 Bhalla [26]IndiaMedical instituteNRResidents and faculty members from various departments40
 Rajpal [27]IndiaMedical schools2002Interns that had gone through their training in various disciplines of medicine287
 Greaves [28]IndiaCity and surrounding area2006Private practitioners45
 Vandan [29]IndiaDistrict2007Medical physicians (public and private)141
 Datta [30]IndiaDistrict2008Private allopathic physicians260
 Hurtig [31]NepalMunicipality1998Licensed allopathic for profit private practitioners which were assumed to see TB patients43
 Shah [32]PakistanLarge citiesNRFormally qualified medical graduates who were practising medicine outside the government sector and who had managed at least one pulmonary TB patient during the previous year245
 Rizvi [33]PakistanCityNRFamily physicians that had no postgraduate qualification and were treating at least 7–10 TB patients per month150
 Khan [21]PakistanTeaching hospitalsNRInterns440
 Khan [34]PakistanCity2002Qualified private practitioners120
 Shehzadi [35]PakistanRegions2003General practitioners88
 Ahmed [36]PakistanRural district2007Private practitioners with basic medical degree and doing private practice for ≥1 yr22
East and South East Asia
 Bai [20]ChinaMedical schoolsNRFinal year medical students439
 Mahendradhata [37]IndonesiaCity2004Private practitioners164
 Yu [38]PhilippinesTertiary care hospitalNRSpecialist physicians who dealt with pulmonary TB patients38
 Auer [39]PhilippinesUrban district (Metro Manilla)1999–2000Private for-profit practitioners who treat TB45
 Portero [40]PhilippinesCountry2001Private physicians1355
South West Asia
 Shirzadi [41]IranLarge cities2001–2002Private sector physicians732
 Hashim [22]IraqPublic health centres in the country2001–2002HCWs500
 Deveci [42]TurkeyCityNRPractising physicians who provide first-line treatment66
 Cirit [43]TurkeyCity2001Physicians208
Africa
 Shimeles [44]EthiopiaCity2003Private, for-profit medical doctors120
 Ayaya [45]KenyaCosmopolitan townNRMedical doctors practising privately53
 Chakaya [46]KenyaSlum2001Private HCWs75
 Suleiman [47]SomaliaPart of country2001Qualified medical practitioners (public and private sector)53
 Nshuti [48]UgandaUrban district1999Doctor or medical assistant from public and private clinics114
Americas
 Dato [49]ArgentinaCity2007Private doctors: general practitioners, infectious disease specialists and pulmonologists61
 LoBue [50]USACountyNRPhysicians who reported a TB suspect or case to the San Diego County Tuberculosis Control for the years 1995–1997150
  • HCW: healthcare worker; NR: not reported; TB: tuberculosis.