Table 1– Characteristics of the Liverpool epidemic strain (LES) mobile genetic elements
Mobile genetic elementCharacteristicsReference
LESGI-1Not unique to LES isolates
Contains one of the LES markers, LESF9
[48, 49]
LESGI-2Contains pyoluteorin biosynthesis cluster[48]
LESGI-3Related to PAGI-2 identified in clone C
Alternative cargo region that contains the LES marker, PS21
[48, 50, 51]
LESGI-4Similarity to PAGI-1[48, 52]
LESGI-5Novel genomic island found in most LES isolates
Majority are hypothetical proteins
LESpro 1Defective prophage proposed to encode an R2 pyocin
Homologous sequence in PAO1
[48, 53]
LESpro 2Novel, inducible prophage
42.1 kb, 44 predicted ORFs
Some homology to phage F10
[48, 54]
LESpro 3Novel, inducible prophage
42.8 kb with 53 ORFs, many of which match to ORFs in P. aeruginosa strain 2192
[48, 55]
LESpro4Inducible prophage highly related to the transposable phage D3112
Novel region of five ORFs which includes the cI repressor gene
[48, 56]
LESpro 5Inducible prophage with some similarity to D3 phage however there are major rearrangements and novel areas
Not found in all LES isolates
[48, 57]
LESpro 6Pf1-like phage similar to Pf1 in PAO1[48, 58]
  • LESGI: Liverpool epidemic strain genomic island; PAGI: Pseudomonas aeruginosa genomic island; LESpro: Liverpool epidemic strain prophage; ORF: open reading frame.