Table 1– Predictors of primary multidrug and extensive drug resistance in tuberculosis (TB) patients registered for treatment in Lithuania between 2002 and 2008: results of multivariable logistic regression
CharacteristicsXDR-TBMDR-TBNon-MDR-TBMDR-/XDR-TB versus non-MDR-TBXDR-TB versus MDR-TB
OR# (95% CI)p-valueOR# (95% CI)p-value
Patients n287297833
Males20 (71.4)540 (74.1)5596 (71.4)1.01 (0.83–1.24)0.891.24 (0.44–3.66)0.69
Age yrs
 <304 (14.3)140 (19.2)1178 (15.0)1.00<0.0011.000.71
 30–399 (32.1)175 (24.0)1584 (20.2)0.76 (0.59–0.98)2.22 (0.62–7.94)
 40–497 (25.0)192 (26.3)2084 (26.6)0.62 (0.48–0.81)1.59 (0.40–6.29)
 50–594 (14.3)144 (19.8)1434 (18.3)0.67 (0.51–0.88)1.13 (0.25–5.07)
 ≥604 (14.3)78 (10.7)1553 (19.8)0.44 (0.32–0.61)1.59 (0.31–8.30)
Urban living19 (67.9)478 (65.6)4473 (57.1)1.46 (1.23–1.73)<0.0011.24 (0.53–2.91)0.62
Contact with TB5 (17.9)67 (9.2)405 (5.2)1.73 (1.30–2.29)<0.0012.32 (0.80–6.73)0.12
Smoking18 (64.3)536 (73.5)5085 (64.9)0.94 (0.75–1.17)0.560.61 (0.22–1.70)0.34
Alcohol use
 None4 (14.3)91 (12.5)1572 (20.1)1.00<0.0011.000.66
 Sometimes10 (35.7)257 (35.3)3274 (41.8)1.27 (0.96–1.68)1.07 (0.28–4.10)
 Often11 (39.3)333 (45.7)2775 (35.4)1.96 (1.44–2.66)1.18 (0.26–5.35)
 Alcoholic3 (10.7)48 (6.6)212 (2.7)3.34 (2.15–5.20)2.65 (0.39–18.0)
Drug abuse0 (0.0)18 (2.5)39 (0.5)1.77 (0.89–3.54)0.11
Homelessness1 (3.6)44 (6.0)190 (2.4)1.31 (0.89–1.92)0.250.48 (0.06–4.06)0.50
Unemployment21 (75)567 (77.8)5889 (75.2)1.21 (0.99–1.49)0.070.95 (0.34–2.65)0.92
Education
 Less than primary+3 (10.7)48 (6.6)961 (12.3)1.000.071.000.65
 Primary+/secondary§17 (60.7)519 (71.2)5263 (67.2)1.10 (0.77–1.55)0.53 (0.11–2.58)
 Tertiaryƒ8 (28.6)162 (22.2)1609 (20.5)1.37 (0.94–1.99)0.72 (0.13–3.91)
Comorbidity0 (0.0)12 (1.6)136 (1.7)0.91 (0.48–1.72)0.77
TB type
 Pulmonary27 (96.4)682 (93.6)7116 (90.8)1.000.011
 Extrapulmonary0 (0.0)12 (1.6)333 (4.3)0.40 (0.22–0.74)
 Both1 (3.6)35 (4.8)384 (4.9)0.84 (0.57–1.22)
Smear positivity18 (64.3)540 (74.1)5732 (73.2)0.82 (0.68–1.00)0.0460.59 (0.25–1.41)0.24
Cavity19 (67.9)494 (67.8)4857 (62.0)1.06 (0.92–1.32)0.311.24 (0.52–2.98)0.62
Strain family
 Non-Beijing3 (10.7)76 (10.4)269 (3.4)
 Beijing6 (21.4)49 (6.7)47 (0.6)1.24 (0.44–3.66)0.69
 Unknown19 (67.9)604 (82.9)7517 (96.0)
  • Data are presented as n (%), unless otherwise stated. XDR: extensively drug-resistant; MDR: multidrug-resistant. Non-MDR-TB includes drug-sensitive, and mono- and polyresistant TB. #: results of multivariate analysis; : cases with any known employment are the reference group; +: primary school education; §: high school education; ƒ: college or university education.