Table 3– Adjusted risk ratios# for various early predictors for current asthma and persistent wheeze at 10 yrs
CharacteristicSubjects nCurrent asthma at 10 yrsp-valuePersistent wheeze at 10 yrsp-value
Total subjects n2730
Male sex851.46 (0.70–3.03)0.3111.09 (0.57–2.10)0.787
Pet ownership (first 5 yrs)800.78 (0.39–1.54)0.4701.10 (0.57–2.09)0.782
Antenatal smoking500.98 (0.16–5.82)0.982
Day care in first year420.71 (0.31–1.64)0.4291.25 (0.64–2.44)0.514
Paternal asthma411.29 (0.63–2.64)0.4811.11 (0.55–2.22)0.772
Paternal atopy1222.56 (0.65–10.13)0.1802.87 (0.73–11.27)0.131
Maternal asthma741.43 (0.72–2.88)0.3091.48 (0.77–2.85)0.241
Maternal atopy1211.72 (0.56–5.28)0.3441.93 (0.63–5.90)0.246
Biparental atopy1012.62 (0.96–7.14)0.0602.96 (1.10–7.99)0.032
Eczema at 5 yrs492.15 (1.10–4.22)0.0251.53 (0.81–2.89)0.190
Eczema at 10 yrs383.59 (1.85–6.96)<0.0012.87 (1.55–5.30)0.001
Allergic rhinoconjunctivitis by 5 yrs593.54 (1.66–7.55)0.0012.24 (1.17–4.29)0.015
Atopy
 Atopic at 6 months311.58 (0.76–3.25)0.2191.60 (0.82–3.14)0.169
 Atopic at 2 yrs632.67 (1.28–5.54)0.0082.67 (1.34–5.29)0.005
 Atopic at 5 yrs563.04 (1.45–6.34)0.0032.10 (1.11–3.99)0.023
 Early atopy (by 2 yrs, not at 5 yrs)340.95 (0.42–2.16)0.9021.21 (0.59–2.46)0.602
 Atopic only at 5 yrs221.62 (0.74–3.56)0.2271.14 (0.49–2.65)0.767
 Persistent atopy (atopic at 2 and 5 yrs)352.56 (1.33–4.94)0.0052.13 (1.14–3.98)0.017
 Atopic at 10 yrs8817.14 (2.39–122.83)0.0053.30 (1.34–8.11)0.009
Wheeze phenotype
 Wheeze ever 0–3 yrs793.79 (1.52–9.46)0.0041.72 (0.87–3.42)0.121
 Wheeze 3–5 yrs557.36 (2.96–18.32)<0.0013.90 (1.93–7.91)<0.001
 Persistent wheeze317.48 (3.73–15.00)<0.0013.74 (2.06–6.79)<0.001
ARI in first year
 Wheezy LRI at 1 yr391.17 (0.56–2.44)0.6841.19 (0.60–2.37)0.626
 Wheezy LRI + RSV101.10 (0.30–3.98)0.8891.52 (0.56–4.16)0.413
 Wheezy LRI + HRV261.63 (0.77–3.45)0.2021.99 (1.04–3.84)0.039
 Wheezy LRI with HRV or RSV301.37 (0.64–2.92)0.4231.67 (0.86–3.27)0.133
 Febrile LRI at 1 yr392.57 (1.33–4.98)0.0052.12 (1.14–3.95)0.018
 Febrile LRI + RSV103.11 (1.50–6.45)0.0022.74 (1.34–5.60)0.006
 Febrile LRI + HRV131.79 (0.73–4.39)0.2022.06 (0.95–4.47)0.067
 Febrile LRI + HRV or RSV202.67 (1.36–5.27)0.0042.31 (1.20–4.46)0.013
 Any wheezy or febrile LRI at 1 yr531.42 (0.72–2.80)0.3141.55 (0.82–2.92)0.174
  • Data are presented as risk ratio (95% CI), unless otherwise stated. ARI: acute respiratory illness; LRI: lower respiratory illness; HRV: human rhinovirus; RSV: respiratory syncytial virus. #: adjusted for sex, breastfeeding, pet ownership, older siblings, second-hand tobacco smoke exposure and daycare attendance. Bold indicates statistical significance.