Table 1– Demographics of 101 patients at the onset of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP)
AllSurvivorsNonsurvivorsp-value
Patients n1018120
Age yrs57 (43–70)55 (42–68)67 (52–75)0.033
Males74 (74)61 (76)13 (65)0.459
Admission category
 Medical53 (53)41 (51)12 (60)0.615
 Elective surgery4 (4)4 (5)0 (0)0.582
 Emergency surgery43 (43)35 (43)8 (40)0.994
Coexisting illnesses
 Cardiac48 (48)37 (46)11 (55)0.619
 Pulmonary19 (19)14 (17)5 (25)0.523
 Renal16 (16)11 (14)5 (25)0.302
 Haematological/oncological8 (8)4 (5)4 (20)0.047
Reason for mechanical ventilation
 Cardiovascular failure32 (32)25 (31)7 (35)0.930
 Acute respiratory failure53 (53)42 (52)11 (55)0.998
 Trauma33 (33)28 (35)5 (25)0.582
 Neurologic failure30 (30)26 (32)4 (20)0.431
 Sepsis25 (25)22 (27)3 (15)0.387
 Miscellaneous10 (10)9 (11)1 (5)0.682
Duration of mechanical ventilation before VAP days6 (3.5–9)6 (3–9)5.5 (4–9.8)0.801
Antibiotics within 14 days before VAP onset76 (75)59 (73)17 (85)0.387
Vital parameters at VAP onset
 Heart rate beats·min−190 (79–103)90 (80–110)88 (76–95)0.344
 MAP mmHg77 (70–90)77 (70–90)75 (68–85)0.436
 Temperature °C38.0 (37.4–38.6)38.1 (37.6–38.8)37.4 (37.0–38.3)0.010
Pa,O2/FI,O2188 (135–253)192 (140–254)173 (126–225)0.290
Sa,O2 %97 (94–99)97 (94–99)98 (96–99)0.468
 WBCs ×109 cells·L−111.6 (8.0–15.0)11.2 (8.0–14.6)13.3 (9.3–18.0)0.209
Microbiology
 Positive EA, BAL or PSB cultures74 (76)58 (73)16 (89)0.226
 Positive blood cultures34 (34)29 (36)5 (25)0.515
Clinical scores at VAP onset
 SAPS II40.5 (32.3–51.0)38.0 (31.0–47.0)48.0 (42.0–55.0)0.002
 ODIN2 (1–3)2 (1–2)3 (1–4)0.050
 SOFA score7.0 (6.0–9.8)6 (5–9)9 (7–14)0.002
 CPIS7.5 (6.0–9.0)8.0 (6.0–9.0)7.0 (6.0–8.0)0.799
Biomarkers at VAP onset
 MR-proANP pmol·L−1163 (98–374)149 (93–278)373 (114–784)0.003
 PCT ng·mL−10.69 (0.22–2.34)0.58 (0.19–2.00)1.36 (0.38–6.04)0.017
  • Data are presented as median (interquartile range) or n (%), unless otherwise stated. Fever was defined as a body temperature >38°C (100.4°F). Leukocytosis and leukopenia were defined as a leukocyte count >11,000 and <3,000 cells·μL−1, respectively. MAP: mean arterial pressure; Pa,O2: arterial oxygen tension; FI,O2: inspiratory oxygen fraction; Sa,O2: arterial oxygen saturation; WBC: white blood cells; EA: endotracheal aspirates; BAL: bronchoalveolar lavage; PSB: protected specimen brush; SAPS: Simplified Acute Physiology Score; ODIN: Organ Dysfunction and/or Infection; SOFA: Sequential Organ Failure Assessment; CPIS: Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score; MR-proANP: midregional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide; PCT: procalcitonin. Bold indicates statistically significant p-values.