|FEV1 <30% predicted|
|One or more hospital admissions in the previous year for an acute exacerbation of COPD|
|Left heart failure or other comorbidities|
|Weight loss or cachexia|
|Decreased functional status|
|Increasing dependence on others|
|Age >70 yrs|
FEV1: forced expiratory volume in one second; COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.