Table 2—

Neural mechanisms of cough

Cerebral cortex
    Voluntary cough
    Voluntary cough suppression
    Involuntary facilitation (?)
Brainstem
    Integrative inputs
    Interaction with breathing
    Motor outputs
Sensory inputs, larynx and lower airways
    Rapidly adapting receptors
    Aδ-nociceptors
    C-fibre receptors
Motor responses
    Respiratory muscles
    Laryngeal muscles
    Upper airway muscles
    Bronchial muscle
    Bronchial glands
    Cardiovascular system