Table 2—

List of potential risk factors of osteoporosis and main references

FactorReference
Smoking17–23
Increased alcohol intake19–22
Vitamin D levels12, 16
Genetic factors20, 24–28, 29, 30
Treatment with corticosteroids1, 7, 8, 13–15, 31, 32, 33, 34–44
Reduced skeletal muscle mass and strength44–53
Low BMI and changes in body composition54–63
Hypogonadism64–69
Reduced levels of insulin-like growth factors70, 71, 72
Chronic systemic inflammation73
  • BMI: body mass index