TABLE 4

Adjusted associations of FEV1 or FVC decline with dietary intake as reported in 2001 (controlling for lifetime pack-years of smoking at follow-up)#

Dietary exposures (tertiles)Decline in lung function mL·year−1 (continuous)
regression coefficient (95% CI)
Quit before ECRHS IIIp-valueSmokerp-value
Subjects n22795
FEV1
Total fruit g5.45 (1.12, 9.78)0.011.21 (−5.92, 8.33)0.74
Apple g4.97 (0.94, 9.01)0.0166.95 (−0.84, 14.73)0.08
Banana g1.41 (−3.21, 6.04)0.55−3.22 (−10.28, 3.83)0.37
Tomato g5.44 (0.98, 9.90)0.0173.63 (−3.60, 10.86)0.32
Herbal tea mL12.03 (4.09, 19.98)0.0032.64 (−14.66, 19.94)0.76
Vitamin C mg2.83 (−2.90, 8.57)0.330.93 (−8.07, 9.92)0.84
FVC
Total fruit g7.38 (1.17, 13.6)0.021.47 (−8.91, 11.9)0.78
Apple g7.28 (1.59, 13.0)0.016.41 (−5.38, 18.2)0.28
Banana g4.67 (−1.88, 11.2)0.16−7.44 (−17.4, 2.48)0.14
Tomato g8.45 (2.16, 14.7)0.0095.12 (−4.93, 15.2)0.31
Herbal tea mL11.57 (−0.01, 23. 15)0.0514.93 (−8.90, 38.76)0.22
Vitamin C mg2.80 (−5.24, 10.8)0.496.90 (−6.43, 20.23)0.31

Adjusted for height, age, country, sex, social class, body mass index, total energy intake, years of education and physical activity. Bold font indicates a statistically significant p-value (<0.05). FEV1: forced expiratory volume in 1 s; FVC: forced vital capacity. #: Only ex- or current smokers included in this analysis).