TABLE 3

Adjusted associations# between FEV1 or FVC decline and dietary intake in adults stratified by smoking status with dietary data collected in 2001

Dietary intake (per-tertile increase)Average decline in lung function mL·year−1 (continuous)
regression coefficient (95% CI)
Never-smokerp-valueQuit before ECRHS IIIp-valueSmokerp-valuep-value for interaction
Subjects n270255109
FEV1
Total fruit g0.51 (−3.62, 4.65)0.816.41 (2.29, 10.5)0.0023.83 (−2.93, 10.60)0.260.03
Apple g0.16 (−3.51, 3.82)0.934.79 (0.87, 8.72)0.0170.62 (−6.22, 7.46)0.860.09
Banana g2.63 (−1.11, 6.37)0.172.92 (−1.52, 7.35)0.20−0.82 (−7.70, 6.06)0.810.25
Tomato g0.52 (−3.36, 4.40)0.795.15 (0.87, 9.44)0.0195.71 (−1.21, 12.63)0.110.06
Herbal tea mL−3.89 (−11.5, 3.71)0.3212.8 (5.13, 20.54)0.0011.97 (−13.36, 17.3)0.800.21
Vitamin C mg1.66 (−3.36, 6.69)0.523.99 (−1.45, 9.44)0.153.19 (−5.59, 11.97)0.470.05
FVC
Total fruit g0.13 (−4.79, 5.06)0.968.13 (2.22, 14.01)0.0074.15 (−5.41, 13.7)0.390.04
Apple g1.45 (−2.91, 5.80)0.516.75 (1.14, 12.34)0.0180.78 (−9.13, 10.69)0.880.29
Banana g4.07 (−0.54, 8.67)0.086.23 (0.01, 12.5)0.05−3.79 (−13.6, 5.99)0.440.04
Tomato g1.02 (−3.66, 5.70)0.679.09 (3.04, 15.14)0.0037.16 (−3.05, 17.37)0.170.11
Herbal tea mL−2.52 (−11.7, 6.67)0.5914.4 (3.16, 25.69)0.0112.34 (−9.47, 34.15)0.260.11
Vitamin C mg3.17 (−2.83, 9.16)0.304.65 (−3.08, 12.37)0.2410.58 (−1.96, 23.11)0.100.30

Bold font indicates a statistically significant p-value (<0.05). FEV1: forced expiratory volume in 1 s; FVC: forced vital capacity; ECRHS: European Community Respiratory Health Survey. #: Adjusted for height, age, country, sex, socio-economic status, body mass index, total energy intake, years of education and physical activity.