TABLE 3

Selected targeted data

MetaboliteFold changeSignificanceCorrelation with ICS
ControlMildModerateSeverep-valueq-valuerp-value
Sphingolipids
 Ceramide(C18:0)1 (0.78–1.27)1.12 (0.85–1.38)1.21 (0.71–1.55)1.56 (1.2–2.03)4×10−40.010.220.14
 Sphingomyelin(C18:1)1 (0.82–1.25)1.02 (0.82–1.19)1.19 (0.91–1.49)1.35 (1.08–1.54)0.0020.010.210.17
 Ceramide(C20:0)1 (0.85–1.22)1.1 (0.91–1.34)1.2 (0.88–1.47)1.36 (1.13–1.66)0.0020.010.250.11
 Ceramide(C18:1)1 (0.86–1.18)1.19 (0.9–1.45)0.93 (0.76–1.26)1.35 (1.1–1.66)0.0020.010.498×10−4
 Ceramide(C22:0)0.99 (0.81–1.2)1.25 (0.91–1.53)1.22 (1.02–1.43)1.41 (1.18–1.73)0.0020.010.210.17
 Sphingomyelin(C18:0)1 (0.84–1.2)0.96 (0.78–1.16)1.11 (0.89–1.33)1.28 (1.09–1.46)0.010.030.160.31
 Hexosylceramide(C18:0)1 (0.87–1.16)0.88 (0.69–1.17)1.29 (1.1–1.58)1.14 (0.96–1.41)0.010.03−0.090.56
 Hexosylceramide(C24:1)1 (0.76–1.26)0.87 (0.66–1.05)1.17 (0.93–1.47)0.99 (0.75–1.2)0.010.04−0.110.48
 Ceramide(C16:0)1 (0.85–1.16)1.2 (0.88–1.37)1.03 (0.86–1.24)1.24 (1.06–1.41)0.020.060.310.04
 Dihydro-S1P(d18:0)1 (0.82–1.22)0.88 (0.77–1.07)1.05 (0.83–1.3)1.23 (1.03–1.52)0.020.060.210.18
 Ceramide(C24:1)1 (0.88–1.11)1.14 (0.85–1.36)1.01 (0.89–1.21)1.17 (1.06–1.38)0.030.070.250.10
 Ceramide(C24:0)1 (0.84–1.17)1.15 (0.93–1.45)1.14 (0.94–1.36)1.34 (1.08–1.67)0.040.100.150.35
 Sphingosine(d18:1)1 (0.67–1.41)1.04 (0.67–1.57)1.04 (0.73–1.58)1.32 (0.96–1.93)0.050.110.110.49
 S1P(d18:1)1 (0.85–1.18)0.94 (0.77–1.11)1.03 (0.9–1.22)1.11 (1–1.31)0.070.130.080.60
 Sphingomyelin(C12:0)0.99 (0.76–1.31)0.92 (0.73–1.25)0.89 (0.6–1.35)1.2 (1–1.6)0.090.160.350.02
 Hexosylceramide(C16:0)1 (0.88–1.15)0.88 (0.71–1.05)1.11 (1–1.28)0.96 (0.81–1.26)0.100.18−0.070.65
Fatty acids
 Oleic acid1 (0.79–1.21)1.2 (0.94–1.8)1.13 (0.83–1.47)1.77 (1.26–2.09)0.0020.0220.260.08
 Palmitoleic acid1 (0.68–1.4)1.25 (0.64–2.22)1.05 (0.6–1.84)2 (1.3–3.25)0.010.040.300.05
 Palmitic acid1 (0.76–1.32)1.1 (0.8–1.45)1.1 (0.86–1.5)1.5 (1.05–1.9)0.010.050.250.11
 α-Linolenic acid1 (0.73–1.37)1.3 (0.97–1.62)1.02 (0.76–1.3)1.32 (0.97–1.95)0.020.070.210.18
 Myristoic acid1 (0.6–1.7)1.26 (0.53–2.39)0.83 (0.46–1.43)1.7 (1.07–2.5)0.030.070.310.04
 Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid1 (0.79–1.23)1.34 (0.96–2.05)1.22 (0.96–1.4)1.61 (1.21–2.12)0.030.070.340.02
Eicosanoids
 LTE41 (0.5–1.89)1.35 (0.78–3.96)3.48 (1.65–6.1)2.1 (1.1–5.18)0.0090.330.150.34
 14,15-DiHETE1 (0.71–1.53)0.74 (0.46–1.08)0.64 (0.42–0.99)0.71 (0.49–0.97)0.030.630.240.12
 19,20-DiHDPA1 (0.66–1.56)0.73 (0.47–1.17)0.75 (0.5–1.1)0.63 (0.42–0.93)0.050.63−0.110.46
 8-HEPE1 (0.71–1.41)0.45 (0.3–0.82)0.82 (0.39–1.42)0.95 (0.52–1.57)0.070.640.040.81
  • Data are presented as median (95% CI). Displayed data were selected based upon p<0.1. The full list of all detected metabolites is provided in supplementary table E4, (sphingolipids), supplementary table E5 (fatty acids) and supplementary table E6 (eicosanoids). Median fold change and confidence intervals were estimated using 500 iterations of bootstrap resampling. ICS: inhaled corticosteroids; S1P: sphingosine-1-phosphate; LTE4: cysteinyl leukotriene E4.