|Patients with severe hereditary α1-antitrypsin deficiency and established emphysema may be candidates for α1-antitrypsin augmentation therapy (evidence B)|
|Antitussives cannot be recommended (evidence C)|
|Drugs approved for primary pulmonary hypertension are not recommended for patients with pulmonary hypertension secondary to COPD (evidence B)|
|Low-dose long acting oral and parenteral opioids may be considered for treating dyspnoea in COPD patients with severe disease (evidence B)|
COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.