|LABAs and LAMAs are preferred over short-acting agents except for patients with only occasional dyspnoea (evidence A)|
|Patients may be started on single long-acting bronchodilator therapy or dual long-acting bronchodilator therapy. In patients with persistent dyspnoea on one bronchodilator treatment should be escalated to two (evidence A).|
|Inhaled bronchodilators are recommended over oral bronchodilators (evidence A)|
|Theophylline is not recommended unless other long-term treatment bronchodilators are unavailable or unaffordable (evidence B)|
LABA: long-acting β2-agonist; LAMA: long-acting muscarinic antagonist.