TABLEĀ 4

Examples of biomarkers of potentially adverse respiratory health effects

Increased levels of markers of airway inflammation (e.g. PMNs or inflammatory cytokines in BAL or sputum)
Increased levels of markers of airway injury or inflammation in exhaled breath (e.g. increased acidity of exhaled breath condensate or increased FeNO in asthmatics)
Increased levels of blood markers of lung injury (e.g. 8-isoprostanes, club cell secretory protein)
Imaging evidence for lung injury or reduced lung volume
Reduced pulmonary gas exchange (e.g. DLCO, DLNO, PaO2, pulse oximetry)
Increased airways responsiveness to nonspecific challenge
Increased airways hyperresponsiveness in asthmatic patients
  • PMN: polymorphonuclear leukocyte; BAL: bronchoalveolar lavage; FeNO: exhaled nitric oxide fraction; DLCO: diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide; DLNO: diffusing capacity of the lung for nitric oxide; PaO2: arterial oxygen tension.