Table 8– Relationship of incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT) to other exercise tests in people with chronic respiratory disease
First author [ref.]DiagnosisMean age yearsDisease severitySubjects nComparison testResults
Arnardóttir [204]COPD64Moderate to severe93#CPETr=0.88, p<0.0001 ISWT distance×body weight versus Wpeak
Campo [205]COPD68.6Mild to severe306MWT, 12MWT, CPETr=0.82 ISWT versus 6MWT;
r=0.74 ISWT versus 12MWT;
r=0.68 estimated VO2 versus VO2max
Hill [48]COPD67Mild to severe24CPETNo difference in VO2 between ISWT and CPET (mean 1227 versus 1186 mL·min−1)
Luxton [38]COPD65Moderate to severe25 (22)CPETr=0.75 ISWT distance versus CPET Wpeak;
r=0.85 ISWT distance×weight versus CPET Wpeak;
significant mean difference: VCO2 (p=0.001), VE (p=0.006), SpO2 (p<0.001), RPE (p<0.001), Borg dyspnoea (p=0.001)
Onorati [210]COPD70Moderate13CPETr=0.92 ISWT VO2peak versus VO2peak cycling;
r=0.86 ISWT VO2peak versus ISWT distance;
r=0.72 ISWT distance versus VO2peak cycling
Palange [211]COPD71Moderate9 (7)CPETMean VO2peak 1145 versus 1025 mL·min−1 (ns) for CPET versus ISWT;
significant mean difference: VCO2peak (p<0.001), RER (p<0.001), HR/VO2 (p<0.05), VE/VCO2peak (p<0.001), VE/VCO2 (p<0.001), lactate (p<0.001), dyspnoea (p<0.05), leg effort (p<0.05)
Turner [35]COPD64Moderate to severe20CPETr=0.73 ISWT distance versus ISWT VO2peak;
r=0.79 ISWT distance versus CPET VO2peak
Win [212]Lung cancer69Operable125Treadmill CPETr=0.67 VO2peak CPET versus ISWT distance
Zainuldin [209]COPD70Mild to severe34CPETNo difference in VO2peak CPET versus ISWT: mean (95% CI) difference 0.024 (-0.036–0.085) L·min−1;
on ISWT, significantly lower VCO2, VE, VE/MVV, SpO2, symptoms
  • All ISWTs had a cohort study design. COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CPET: cardiopulmonary exercise test; Wpeak: peak work rate; 6MWT: 6-min walk test; 12MWT: 12-min walk test; VO2: oxygen uptake; VO2max: maximum oxygen uptake; VCO2: carbon dioxide production; VE: minute ventilation; SpO2: arterial oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry; RPE: rate of perceived exertion; VO2peak: peak oxygen uptake; ns: nonsignificant; VCO2peak: peak carbon dioxide production; RER: respiratory exchange ratio; HR: heart rate; MVV: maximum voluntary ventilation. #: convenience sample; : completers.