Few data exist on respiratory effects of indoor air quality and comfort parameters in the elderly. In the context of the GERIE study, we investigated for the first time the relationships of these factors to respiratory morbidity among elderly people permanently living in nursing homes in seven European countries.
600 elderly people from 50 nursing homes underwent a medical examination and completed a standardised questionnaire. Air quality and comfort parameters were objectively assessed in situ in the nursing home. Mean concentrations of air pollutants did not exceed the existing standards.
Forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity ratio was highly significantly related to elevated levels of particles with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter of <0.1 µm (PM0.1) (adjusted OR 8.16, 95% CI 2.24–29.3) and nitrogen dioxide (aOR 3.74, 95% CI 1.06–13.1). Excess risks for usual breathlessness and cough were found with elevated PM10 (aOR 1.53 (95% CI 1.15–2.07) and aOR 1.73 (95% CI 1.17–10.3), respectively) and nitrogen dioxide (aOR 1.58 (95% CI 1.15–2.20) and aOR 1.56 (95% CI 1.03–2.41), respectively). Excess risks for wheeze in the past year were found with PM0.1 (aOR 2.82, 95% CI 1.15–7.02) and for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and exhaled carbon monoxide with formaldehyde (aOR 3.49 (95% CI 1.17–10.3) and aOR 1.25 (95% CI 1.02–1.55), respectively). Breathlessness and cough were associated with higher carbon dioxide. Relative humidity was inversely related to wheeze in the past year and usual cough. Elderly subjects aged ⩾80 years were at higher risk. Pollutant effects were more pronounced in the case of poor ventilation.
Even at low levels, indoor air quality affected respiratory health in elderly people permanently living in nursing homes, with frailty increasing with age. The effects were modulated by ventilation.
Poor air quality in European nursing homes impairs respiratory health in the elderly permanently living in them http://ow.ly/Es8VQ
Support statement: The GERIE study was funded by the European Commission's Directorate General for Health and Consumer Protection (DG-SANCO; contract no. 2006343) and the French Agency for Environment and Energy Management (ADEME; contract no. 08 62 C 0076).
Conflict of interest: Disclosures can be found alongside the online version of this article at erj.ersjournals.com
- Received May 15, 2013.
- Accepted November 11, 2014.
- Copyright ©ERS 2014