Previous reports have suggested that nosocomial and community Legionella pneumonia cases are similar. However, community and hospital characteristics, such as aquatic environment, antibiotic pressure (usage) and populations, are quite different, leading to the suspicion that Legionella infection may differ in the two settings. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to compare demographic data, risk factors, clinical, radiological and outcome data between 125 nosocomial and 33 community-acquired cases of Legionella pneumophila infection. Patients in the nosocomially acquired Legionella pneumonia (NALP) group were older than those in the community-acquired Legionella pneumonia (CALP) group. Univariate analysis showed that smoking habit, cough, thoracic pain, and extrapulmonary manifestations were more prevalent in the CALP group, whilst chronic lung disease and cancer were more prevalent in the NALP group. Moreover, patients in the NALP group were more likely to have received oxygen and corticosteroid therapy and also to have altered creatinine values than patients in the CALP group, whilst more patients in the latter group had altered alanine amino-transferase values. However, multivariate analysis failed to confirm most of these differences. Smoking habit and blood creatinine levels were the only variables remaining significant. In conclusion, demographic, clinical, laboratory, radiological and outcome data in nosocomial and community-acquired Legionella pneumonia are quite similar.