European Respiratory Journal 2017 49: 1601854; DOI: 10.1183/13993003.01854-2016
Respiratory Institute, Hospital Clínic, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), University of Barcelona, Barcelona, SpainCentro de Investigación Biomédica en red Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES), Madrid, Spain
The transition from a) Mendel's peas (with the seven traits he studied) to b) the cloning of the human genome, which started the modern post-genomic era. a) The Mendel's peas image was reproduced and modified from  with permission b) Reproduced and modified from  with permission.
A holistic and integrated view of disease from the standpoint of multilevel networks. The figure illustrates the different levels of complexity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), although these are, by and large, applicable to many other chronic diseases. The outcomes of potential clinical relevance are shown in the right-hand column. At each level, only some of the potential components are shown to illustrate the concept (the figure is not intended to be comprehensive). Likewise, links between the different elements of the network are drawn for illustrative purposes only and do not necessarily reflect evidence-based relationships. Metab Syn.: metabolic syndrome; CVD: cardiovascular disease; GWAS: genome-wide association studies; miDNA: mitochondrial DNA; miRNA: micro-RNA; ncRNA: noncoding RNA. Reproduced and modified from  with permission.