European Respiratory Society


A 13 yr old male with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia who received bilevel positive airway pressure ventilation via a face mask for post-transplant pneumonitis developed subcutaneous emphysema, radiographic evidence of pulmonary interstitial emphysema, pneumomediastinum and 6 h later, right hemiparesis and focal livedo reticularis. This case illustrates that severe barotrauma may complicate noninvasive bilevel positive airway pressure ventilation.