Before submitting a manuscript to the ERS research journals (the European Respiratory Journal and ERJ Open Research), please read these guidelines carefully. Adherence to the guidelines will help to ensure smooth and prompt peer review. The other ERS journals (European Respiratory Review and Breathe) have their own specific manuscript preparation guidelines.
All submissions to the ERS research journals are handled via the ScholarOne Manuscripts platform, which provides detailed instructions about the submission process. If you experience problems or require any further assistance, please contact the submission helpline direct on +44 114 2672864 or contact Gill Archer, ScholarOne Manuscripts coordinator.
- Overlapping publications and publication ethics
- Manuscript preparation
- Original articles
- Review and series articles
- Letters and correspondence
- Online supplementary material and video summaries
- Guidelines for reporting research findings
- Data availability and publication
- Registering clinical trials
- Permission to re-publish materials
- Conflict of interest
- Correction policy
- Appendix: sources of statistical information
Overlapping publications and publication ethics top
Authors submitting a paper to the ERS research journals do so on the understanding that neither the work nor any part of its essential substance, tables or figures have been or will be published or submitted to another scientific journal or are being considered for publication elsewhere. This must be stated in the cover letter. This restriction does not apply to conference abstracts or material published under legal requirements for clinical trials reporting, but includes work published in another language.
It is the authors' responsibility to ensure that submitted manuscripts are not duplicate publications; they must declare any simultaneous submissions of similar or related manuscripts at the point of submission and must include electronic copies of these manuscripts as a supplement to their submission. If there are any concerns following submission, the editors reserve the right to take appropriate action.
The ERS uses Crossref Similarity Check (powered by iThenticate) software. Submitted articles are screened and compared to previously published sources. Manuscripts revealing a high proportion of similarity to single or multiple published sources will be examined carefully, and the Chief Editors reserve the right to approach authors for an explanation (as per the Committee on Publication Ethics recommendations of procedures to follow in the event of suspected plagiarism in a submitted manuscript).
As a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics, the ERS follows the COPE codes of conduct and best practice guidelines.
Manuscript preparation top
Presentation of manuscripts should be consistent with the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals, as recommended by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE).
Brief requirements for journal articles are summarised in the following table. The requirements are outlined in more detail below.
Figures and tables*
Yes, 200 words
Review and series articles
Yes, 200 words
Task force reports, guidelines and consensus statements
Yes, 200 words
*The number of figures and tables in the above summary refers to the combined number; for example, letters can have either one figure or one table, not one of each.
For further general guidance on how to write papers, please refer to: Sterk PJ, Rabe KF. The joy of writing a paper. Breathe 2008; 4: 224-232, and guidelines for authors on how to write scientific articles to be published in English at www.ease.org.uk/publications/author-guidelines
Authors are reminded that they should not imply that any opinions or views expressed in their article are those of the journal.
- Write the manuscript in UK English.
- The manuscript file you submit must be saved in rich text format (.rtf) or as a Microsoft Word document (.doc or .docx).
- Describe abbreviations and unusual terms at the first time of use.
- Symbols as defined by the ad hoc working group of the Commission of the European Communities (see Eur Respir J 1993; 6: Suppl. 16) are recommended.
- Système International (SI) units are recommended.
- Equations should be created as normal text.
- Provide a concise and informative title, limited to 90 characters (including spaces).
- Include a list of all contributing authors and all of their affiliations, with a clear indication of who is associated with each institution.
- Supply the full correspondence details for the corresponding author, including e-mail address. Only one corresponding author per manuscript should be provided.
- Provide a 117-character (including spaces) summary of the "take home" message of your paper, which can be used to publicise your study via social media.
- Insert tables into the main text document using the Table function in your word processing package. Do not supply tables in a separate file.
- Number tables consecutively with Arabic numerals.
- Limit data to a sensible number of significant figures.
- Avoid large tables if possible. Large tables are difficult to display on small screens or A4 printouts.
- Provide a clear footnote for each table, making sure all abbreviations and symbols used are defined.
- For reference numbering schemes, citations made in tables should continue in numerical order from the point in the main body text where the table is first cited.
- Supply line-art figures in JPEG, TIFF, Adobe Illustrator (.ai), PDF, SVG or EPS format. Graphs or bar charts may be supplied in Excel or similar spreadsheet format.
- Supply halftone and photographic images in PSD, JPEG or TIFF format. Minimum resolution should be 300 dpi at the final printable size (90 mm wide or greater).
- Don’t embed images in the main manuscript file. Supply them separately.
- If your figures were originally created in another format that contains extra information (e.g. embedded data in an Excel graph), consider supplying them as supplementary material (Original Articles only).
Size and quantity
- Figures constitute a key element of manuscripts submitted to the ERS research journals. However, figures should be limited (both in size and number) to those required to show the essential features described in the manuscript.
- Avoid large figures comprising many individual parts: as a maximum, each individual figure must fit to a single PDF page of the journal, with sufficient space for its accompanying caption.
- If you have a large number of figures, consider publishing some of them as an online supplement.
- Images should be submitted in as close a size as possible to the final print size. There are three options: 90, 140 or 190 mm.
- There is a charge for presenting figures in colour in the printed edition of the European Respiratory Journal; figures can be presented in colour online free of charge in both the European Respiratory Journal and ERJ Open Research.
- There is no charge for presenting figures in colour in ERJ Open Research.
- Please remember that people are likely to print your manuscript on a black-and-white printer. Your colour figures need to be comprehensible when printed in this format.
- All submitted figures must be clearly named and numbered.
- Whether for images, drawings or graphs, use no more than four panels for a single figure. These should be labelled as a), b), c) and d).
- In photographic and halftone images, show only the areas of interest with enough surrounding area for orientation purposes.
- Radiographic images should be of high quality and combined into one array, such as posteroanterior and lateral views. Each panel should be sized identically.
- When several photographic or halftone images of a given type are being shown, please reproduce them all at the same magnification.
- Photomicrographs must have internal linear scale markers (scale bars), since the size and magnification may be altered when the figure is printed or displayed on screen.
- Images should correspond in appearance to the tonal relations of the original radiograph (i.e. showing the bones white on a dark background), with the patient's right to the observer's left. CT scans and magnetic resonance images should employ the internationally accepted 'view from below'.
- Label your images such that all important details are clearly marked, but avoid obscuring large areas of the images with excessive labelling.
- Use a sans serif font (such as Arial or Helvetica) for labelling, and ensure that the font is legible, of reasonable size and uniform throughout all the figures in your manuscript.
- Ensure that bar charts and graphs have a white background, with no shading or gridlines.
- Use greyscale shading on bar charts and graphs (different weights can be used, e.g. from 0% (white) to 100% (black) for purposes of differentiation), in preference to hatching and patterning.
- Do not use three-dimensional effects in the presentation of bar charts.
- For reference numbering schemes, citations made in figures should continue in numerical order from the point in the main body text where the figure is cited.
Guidelines for handling image data
- If an image has been enhanced electronically, please explain the alterations that have been made and submit the original image along with the enhanced one. Keep an electronic set of original images, since our reviewers might ask you to modify their content and the display modus.
- The Council of Science Editors has established four basic guidelines for handling image data, which authors submitting to the ERS research journals are urged to comply with. 1) No specific feature within an image may be enhanced, obscured, removed or introduced. 2) Adjustments of brightness, contrast or colour balance are acceptable if they are applied to the whole image and as long as they do not obscure, eliminate or misrepresent any information present in the original. 3) The grouping of images from different parts of the same gel, or from different gels, fields or exposures must be made explicit by the arrangement of the figure (e.g. by using dividing lines) and in the text of the figure legend. 4) If the original data cannot be produced by an author when asked to provide it, the acceptance of the manuscript may be revoked.
- Provide a clear caption for each figure.
- Captions should be brief and not repetitive of information given in the text.
- All abbreviations should be expanded.
- Where appropriate, captions should include the imaging technique used, the body part imaged and any noteworthy details.
- Mention any use of internal scale bars.
- Acknowledgements should be grouped into a single paragraph placed after the Discussion section.
- Only acknowledge people who have made substantial contributions to the study, and provide the affiliation of those you name.
- Provide the names and affiliation details of members of collaborating bodies.
- Financial support for the study should be acknowledged in a separate support statement; financial support provided to individuals must be disclosed on the conflict of interest declaration.
- Number references consecutively in the order in which they first appear in the text, using full-sized Arabic numerals in square brackets to cite references.
- All authors must be included for each cited item.
- References should contain at all the information shown in the following examples:
1. Bannerjee D, Khair OA, Honeybourne D. Impact of sputum bacteria on airway inflammation and health status in clinical stable COPD. Eur Respir J 2004; 23: 685-692.
2. Bourbon J, Henrion-Caude A, Gaultier C. Molecular basis of lung development. In: Gibson GJ, Geddes DM, Costable U, Sterk PJ, Corrin B, eds. Respiratory Medicine. 3rd Edn. Edinburgh/Philadelphia, Elsevier Science, 2002; pp. 64-81.
- Documents published online, and individual web pages, should be listed in the reference list, not in the text, and only used when an original citation is unavailable; citations should contain at all the information shown in this example (include the author of the webpage, its title, the URL on which the cited material can be found, and the dates on which the webpage was last accessed by you, and on which it was last updated):
3. WHO. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). www.who.int/csr/sars/en/index.html. Date last updated: June 1 2004. Date last accessed: June 1 2004.
- References to websites as a whole or sections of websites (rather than particular pages or documents on a website) should be included directly in the text:
...data was sourced from the WHO Global Health Observatory (http://www.who.int/gho/en/)...
- Works that have not yet been accepted for publication and personal communications should not appear in the reference list. These should be mentioned directly in the text.
- A copy of any paper cited as "in press" and not yet available online should be uploaded to the submission platform as supporting material.
Original articles top
Original articles should not exceed 3000 words (you do not need to include the abstract, references, tables and figure captions in this word count). If your manuscript exceeds this limit, please state the final word count and explicit reasons for exceeding the limit in your covering letter.
The total number of figures and/or tables should be limited to no more than eight. Large figures with more than four parts should be avoided: these can be presented as online supplementary material. More information regarding figures can be found above.
Please provide an abstract of 200 words or fewer, which is easily understood without reference to the text (see Ann Intern Med 1987; 106: 598-604).
The abstract should have four separate paragraphs, which correspond to: the question addressed by the study; materials/patients and methods; results; and the answer to the question. One or two sentences of background information can be included in the opening paragraph if necessary. The question and answer should be the same as those in the text.
Include only the most important numbers and results, and avoid using abbreviations.
In the introduction, state the question you asked (or hypothesis to be tested) and your considerations leading to the formulation of the question. Give only pertinent references.
Material and methods
Study subjects or animals
- Clearly describe how the subjects or experimental animals were identified, including the control subjects when used. For animals, see Laboratory Animals 1985; 19: 106-108.
- Clearly state the eligibility criteria for cases and controls in observational studies, or for subjects in clinical trials.
- When reporting studies on human subjects, authors should indicate whether the study procedures were approved, or were exempt from review, by the responsible national or institutional review committee. If no formal ethics committee was available, a statement indicating that the research was conducted according to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki should be included. Written informed consent must also have been obtained from all subjects and this must be clearly indicated in the paper. See also guidance on the reporting of clinical trials, below.
- Animal experimentation must have been performed according to the Declaration of Helsinki conventions for the use and care of animals.
- Provide details of the species and/or strain and number of animals involved in the study.
- The editors will reject work that does not conform to acceptable ethical criteria.
- Clearly state the main study objective(s).
- Consider sample size and whether you have enough subjects to reliably address the research question.
- Manuscripts reporting clinical trials should include details of the sample size calculation (i.e. the expected effect size, power, level of statistical significance and one- or two-sided test).
- For systematic reviews, make sure that the keywords used to search electronic medical databases cover different terminology (for example, tumour or cancer) and spelling (for example, randomised or randomized).
- Provide an overview of the main tests or experiments.
- Describe the methods and apparatus in sufficient detail to allow other workers to evaluate or reproduce the tests/experiments.
- For methods that have been published before, provide a reference only, or a reference and brief description.
- Identify drugs and chemicals, including generic name, dosage and route of administration.
- Provide manufacturers’ names and addresses (city and country) for equipment, drugs, chemicals and software as necessary, but not in a separate section.
- Clearly state and define the main outcome measure(s).
- Briefly state the statistical methods used during the analysis if they are standard. Describe any new methods and justify their use.
- In the case of single- or multicentre trials with blinded intervention, the code must have been broken at the end of the study in the presence of the responsible investigator of each centre. The code and the data will then be available to each participating centre. The first author should make provisions so that if needed, the data are available to the editors for independent statistical analysis.
- Seek advice from a statistician on the appropriate methods of analysis and whether results have been interpreted correctly.
- Keep the results section brief.
- Describe the baseline characteristics or condition of patients or animals.
- Focus on the important results, i.e. those that help to address the research question.
- Present most data in figures or tables, not in the text. Use the text to emphasise or summarise the most important observations.
- At the beginning of the discussion, summarise the main results, and show how they have addressed the research question.
- Make sure that the conclusions are consistent with the results and are pertinent to the research question.
- Describe the limitations of the study and/or analysis, and discuss their possible implications for the conclusions.
- Emphasise the new and important aspects of the study.
- Try to explain contradictory or unexpected results, or discrepancies with previous findings.
Review and series articles top
Review articles provide an overview and discussion of recent and current studies/practices in a particular area of respiratory research.
They should include an abstract of no more than 200 words, which provides an overview of the full article and which is easily understood without reference to the text.
Review articles should not exceed 5000 words (you do not need to include abstract, references, tables and figure captions in this word count); if manuscripts exceed this limit, please state the final word count and give your reasons for exceeding the limit in your covering letter.
The total number of figures and/or tables should be limited to no more than five.
Given the nature of review articles, it is appropriate to include a higher number of references than in original articles, but this should not exceed 200 in total.
Letters and correspondence top
Research letters are case study articles, preliminary studies or short reports presented in the format of a letter to the editor.
Research letters do not contain an abstract.
Research letters should not exceed 1200 words (you do not need to include references, tables and figure captions in this word count) and should have no more than 15 references. One figure or one table may be included.
Correspondence can be submitted for discussion of recently published articles and other topical matters; correspondence articles should not exceed 800 words (you do not need to include references, tables and figure captions in this word count) and should have no more than 10 references. One figure or one table may be included.
The ERS research journals will not publish online supplementary material for letters or correspondence.
Online supplementary material and video summaries top
Authors of original or review articles have the option of providing more detailed methodology, supplementary data or figures, and accompanying videos, as an online supplement. This is optional, at the discretion of the author and/or editor. The ERS research journals will not accept supplementary material for editorials, letters or correspondence. Documents should be uploaded as "Supplementary material" during the submission process.
Authors of accepted original research articles or letters to the editor may submit a video summary to accompany their manuscript. These should be a short summary, in English, of the study – they must not go beyond the scope of the paper. They will be published via YouTube and embedded as data supplements on the journal website. In order to gain maximum impact, it is recommended that video summaries be submitted as soon as possible after acceptance. Further details will be provided after acceptance.
Online supplementary material will not be edited by the publications office, and will be published online as it is supplied.
Guidelines for reporting research findings top
Randomised controlled trials must conform to the CONSORT statement, which provides a set of recommendations comprising a list of items to report and a patient flow diagram. For other study designs, authors are strongly recommended to consult the following reporting guidelines: studies of diagnostic accuracy (STARD); preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA); observational studies in epidemiology (STROBE); genetic association studies (STREGA); meta-analyses of observational studies in epidemiology (MOOSE); standard protocol items: recommendations for interventional trials (SPIRIT) and animal research reporting of in vivo experiments (ARRIVE).
In some cases, the chief editor may require that authors make available the data on which their findings are based, or provide documentation relating to the protocol of their study.
Data availability and publication top
We encourage authors to make the datasets underlying their manuscript available, when this is practical, either publicly or upon request. Datasets can be shared publicly via subject-specific or general online repositories, or by submitting them as online supplementary material. The PLoS journals provide useful guidance on data repositories and sharing.
The ERS research journals encourage data sharing through the Dryad data repository. Dryad is an international repository for the datasets underlying articles in the sciences and medical research. Datasets published by Dryad are accessible to all readers, and the sharing of raw data in this way enables other researchers to validate study findings and perform new analyses.
If you wish to deposit your dataset with Dryad, we can help by creating a “stub” or holding page, ready for you to access and to deposit your data, at the point that your manuscript is accepted for publication in the journal. Although an author fee is payable when depositing data with Dryad, the ERS has allocated funds to cover deposit fees for an introductory period, which will be available on a strictly first come, first served basis.
Authors should still continue to submit supplementary methods, results, figures and tables in the same way for publication as an online article supplement on the journal site; the Dryad repository should be used to archive the datasets that underlie the study published by the journal.
Once you have successfully deposited a dataset, it will be allocated a unique DOI by Dryad, thereby establishing a permanent link that you can use to cite your dataset.
For a more detailed overview of how to deposit your data with Dryad, please click here.
Registering clinical trials top
In order to be published in the ERS research journals, any clinical trials started after January 1, 2006 must be properly registered. The ICMJE defines a clinical trial as any research project that prospectively assigns human subjects to intervention or concurrent comparison or control groups to study the cause-and-effect relationship between a medical intervention and a health outcome. Medical interventions include drugs, surgical procedures, devices, behavioural treatments, process-of-care changes and the like.
The ICMJE accepts registration in any registry that is a primary register of the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) or in ClinicalTrials.gov, which is a data provider to the WHO ICTRP.
The ICMJE is expanding the definition of the types of trials that must be registered and will begin to implement the World Health Organization definition of clinical trials for all trials that began enrolment on or after July 1, 2008. The World Health Organization's definition of clinical trials is: "any research study that prospectively assigns human participants or groups of humans to one or more health-related interventions to evaluate the effects on health outcomes".
The ICMJE does not consider results posted in the same clinical trials registry in which the primary registration resides to be previous publication if the results are presented in the form of a brief (500 word) structured abstract or table (including data on patients enrolled, key outcomes and adverse events). When submitting to the ERS research journals, authors should specify where the clinical trial is registered and disclose all posting in registries of results of the same or closely related work.
Authors are reminded that in addition to the above there may be legal requirements regarding registration of clinical trials, and publication of summaries and other material in public repositories. The ERS will not regard any publication of material under these requirements as prior publication.
Permission to re-publish materials top
The ERS research journals discourage the use of previously published figures and tables, or any other material previously published elsewhere, unless it is absolutely essential. If you need to include such material in your manuscript, you must obtain permission from the copyright owner (or their licensee, if appropriate) before you submit your manuscript. The copyright owner may be the publisher, and not the original author. In order to secure the re-use of the material in question, you may be required to pay a fee to the original publisher. Some copyright holders or licensees will not provide permission for publication, which precludes the material from being published in the printed or online versions of the ERS research journals.
Authors should be aware that externally produced questionnaires are often subject to copyright restrictions, meaning that their use, reproduction and modification may be restricted. Before using, modifying or reproducing questionnaires, you should contact the copyright holder or their licensee to seek their support and gain written permission for reproduction and/or modification of the questionnaire, as necessary. If you are unsure about usage, modification and reproduction of questionnaires, you should contact the copyright holder/creator of the questionnaire in the first instance. Should concerns arise regarding the use, reproduction and modification of questionnaires, the ERS reserves the right to take appropriate action.
Once your manuscript has been accepted for publication, the ERS publications team will contact you requesting copies of all the written permission agreements you have obtained.
There is no maximum for the number of authors of a manuscript, although the final submitted version of the manuscript must have been approved by all co-authors.
Authorship credit should be based on fulfilment of all of the following four criteria:
- substantial contributions to either: the conception and design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis or interpretation of data for the work; and
- drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and
- final approval of the version to be published; and
- agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work, in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.
All people listed as authors should qualify for authorship, and all those who qualify should be listed.
Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group does not justify authorship.
Writing assistance from medical writers or agencies must be detailed the acknowledgements section or, if appropriate, the author list.
As manuscripts must have been approved by all authors prior to submission, any changes to the list of authors that are proposed after manuscript submission require written approval from all named authors; this is in accord with the procedures outlined by the Committee on Publications Ethics (COPE).
Contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship stated above should be listed in the acknowledgements section, by stating their names and affiliation details.
Examples of those who might be acknowledged include: people or collaborating bodies who contributed materially to the paper but whose contributions do not justify authorship; a person who provided purely technical help or writing assistance; a department leader who provided only general support.
If the study was performed in collaboration with or on behalf of a particular body (for example, ISAAC), the names and affiliation details of members of that body or group should be listed in an acknowledgements section.
The ERS manuscript submission and publishing systems support the use of ORCID researcher identifiers. Authors who wish to have their ORCID associated with their manuscript should log in to the submission system and edit their personal account to include their ORCID and to authorise ORCID to link to their ScholarOne account. This must be done prior to manuscript acceptance.
Conflict of interest top
Any conflict of interest for a given manuscript and for all authors of a manuscript must be dealt with according to the statement of the ICMJE (the 'Vancouver Group') as published in Lancet 1993; 341: 742. Editors and reviewers must disclose to the Chief Editor any personal or financial relationship that could bias their opinion and decision in the peer-review process.
Each author must complete the ICMJE conflict of interest form and these must be uploaded during manuscript submission. Peer review will not begin until all authors have provided conflict of interest declaration forms.
Authors must acknowledge all financial support for the work (including, but not limited to, support from pharmaceutical companies, medical device companies and electronic nicotine delivery system companies) and other financial or personal conflicts of interest that are both connected and unconnected with the work. It is each author's responsibility to fill in this form correctly. Each author must complete their own conflict of interest declaration form. Corresponding authors should not complete forms on behalf of other authors, but corresponding authors can upload forms for other authors once they have been completed. If multiple forms are uploaded by one author, it is recommended that all the forms are placed in a .zip file before uploading. The ERS and the editors reserve the right to take appropriate action if these forms have not been filled in correctly. A statement reflecting the disclosures made will be added to the manuscript at publication, and any forms on which a potential conflict of interest is disclosed will be uploaded as a supplement to the online version of the manuscript.
The ERS and the editors adhere to the European Respiratory Society policy on tobacco industry funding. The ERS does not accept contributions from authors who receive funding from the tobacco industry or from electronic nicotine delivery system companies that are wholly or partially owned by tobacco companies. Authors will be asked to disclose any funding and/or conflict of interest related to the tobacco industry. In the case of disclosure of a conflict of interest any time after January 1, 2000 by the person concerned, there will be a 5-year ban from the date of disclosure before that person is allowed to participate actively in an ERS event again. In the case of the discovery of a conflict of interest, which was not disclosed by the person concerned, there will be a ban for life from participating actively in any ERS activity, including all ERS publications and scientific and intellectual contributions of any type. The same principle will apply to any other real or perceived, direct or indirect links with the tobacco industry, such as the holding of shares, speaking at or attending meetings organised by the tobacco industry. Any person found to be maintaining a relationship (as defined above) with, or receiving funding from, the tobacco industry after January 1, 2013 will be banned for life from involvement in any ERS activity including membership, all ERS publications, scientific and intellectual contributions of any type.
On manuscript submission, authors will be asked if they comply with this policy. If you have any queries regarding this, please contact the ERS publications office.
Before publication, a PDF proof will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author. Please mark up any corrections and return them to the ERS publications office within 48 hours by email. Late return may delay publication.
Correction policy top
Corrections to ERS research journals articles that have already been published will be made at the discretion of the chief editor(s). For articles that have been published in their final version (with page numbers) for longer than two years, only important corrections, in particular relating to the reporting of the methods or findings of the study, or to the understanding of the manuscript, will be considered.
Appendix: Sources of information for statistical analyses, study design and data presentation top
The statistical advisors of the European Respiratory Journal and ERJ Open Research recommend the following series of papers on the use of statistics, in particular those articles on repeatability, reproducibility, regression and correlation analyses and confidence intervals, and comparisons of means and proportions.
- Bland JM, Altman DG. Correlation, regression and repeated data. BMJ 1994; 308: 896.
- Bland JM, Altman DG. Regression towards the mean. BMJ 1994; 308: 1499.
- Altman DG, Bland JM. Diagnostic tests 1: sensitivity and specificity. BMJ 1994; 308: 1552.
- Altman DG, Bland JM. Diagnostic tests 2: predictive values. BMJ 1994; 309: 102.
- Altman DG, Bland JM. Diagnostic tests 3: receiver operating characteristic plots. BMJ 1994; 309: 188.
- Bland JM, Altman DG. One- and two-sided tests of significance. BMJ 1994; 309: 248.
- Bland JM, Altman DG. Some examples of regression towards the mean. BMJ 1994; 309: 780.
- Altman DG, Bland JM. Quartiles, quintiles, centiles, and other quantiles. BMJ 1994; 309: 996.
- Bland JM, Altman DG. Matching. BMJ 1994; 309: 1128.
- Altman DG, Bland JM. The normal distribution. BMJ 1995; 310: 298.
- Bland JM, Altman DG. Calculating correlation coefficients with repeated observations: Part 1, correlation within subjects. BMJ 1995; 310: 446.
- Bland JM, Altman DG. Calculating correlation coefficients with repeated observations: Part 2, correlation between subjects. BMJ 1995; 310: 633.
- Altman DG, Bland JM. Absence of evidence is not evidence of absence. BMJ 1995; 311: 485.
- Bland JM, Altman DG. Multiple significance tests: the Bonferroni method. BMJ 1995; 310: 170.
- Altman DG, Bland JM. Presentation of numerical data. BMJ 1996; 312: 572.
- Bland JM, Altman DG. Logarithms. BMJ 1996; 312: 700.
- Bland JM, Altman DG. Transforming data. BMJ 1996; 312: 770.
- Bland JM, Altman DG. Transformations, means and confidence intervals. BMJ 1996; 312: 1079.
- Bland JM, Altman DG. The use of transformations when comparing two means. BMJ 1996; 312: 1153.
- Altman DG, Bland JM. Comparing several groups using analysis of variance. BMJ 1996; 312: 1472-1473.
- Bland JM, Altman DG. Measurement error. BMJ 1996; 313: 744
- Bland JM, Altman DG. Measurement error and correlation coefficients. BMJ 1996; 313: 41-42.
- Bland JM, Altman DG. Measurement error proportional to the mean. BMJ 1996; 313: 106.
- Altman DG, Matthews JNS. Interaction 1: Heterogeneity of effects. BMJ 1996; 313: 486.
- Matthews JNS, Altman DG. Interaction 2: compare effect sizes not P values. BMJ 1996; 313: 808.
- Matthews JNS, Altman DG. Interaction 3: How to examine heterogeneity. BMJ 1996; 313: 862.
- Altman DG, Bland JM. Detecting skewness from summary information. BMJ 1996; 313: 1200.
- Bland JM, Altman DG. Cronbach's alpha. BMJ 1997; 314: 572.
- Altman DG, Bland JM. Units of analysis. BMJ 1997; 314: 1874.
- Bland JM, Kerry SM. Trials randomised in clusters. BMJ 1997; 315: 600.
- Kerry SM, Bland JM. Analysis of a trial randomised in clusters. BMJ 1998; 316: 54.
- Bland JM, Kerry SM. Weighted comparison of means. BMJ 1998; 316: 129.
- Kerry SM, Bland JM. Sample size in cluster randomisation. BMJ 1998; 316: 549.
- Kerry SM, Bland JM. The intra-cluster correlation coefficient in cluster randomisation. BMJ 1998; 316: 1455.
- Altman DG, Bland JM. Generalisation and extrapolation. BMJ 1998; 317: 409-410.
- Altman DG, Bland JM. Time to event (survival) data. BMJ 1998; 317: 468-469.
- Bland JM, Altman DG. Bayesians and frequentists. BMJ 1998; 317: 1151.
- Bland JM, Altman DG. Survival probabilities (the Kaplan-Meier method). BMJ 1998; 317: 1572.
- Altman DG, Bland JM. Treatment allocation in controlled trials: why randomise?BMJ 1999; 318: 1209.
- Altman DG, Bland JM. Variables and parameters. BMJ 1999; 318: 1667.
- Altman DG, Bland JM. How to randomise. BMJ 1999; 319: 703±704.
- Bland JM, Altman DG. The odds ratio. BMJ 2000; 320: 1468.
- Day SJ, Altman DG. Blinding in clinical trials and other studies. BMJ 2000; 321: 504.
- Altman DG, Schulz KF. Concealing treatment allocation in randomised trials. BMJ 2001; 323: 446-447.
- Vickers AJ, Altman DG. Analysing controlled trials with baseline and follow up measurements. BMJ 2001; 323: 1123-1124.
- Bland JM, Altman DG. Validating scales and indexes. BMJ 2002; 324: 606-607.
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This page was updated on 18 September, 2015